Documentation Home
MySQL 5.5 Reference Manual
Related Documentation Download this Manual Excerpts from this Manual

MySQL 5.5 Reference Manual  /  ...  /  mysqlbinlog — Utility for Processing Binary Log Files

4.6.7 mysqlbinlog — Utility for Processing Binary Log Files

The server's binary log consists of files containing events that describe modifications to database contents. The server writes these files in binary format. To display their contents in text format, use the mysqlbinlog utility. You can also use mysqlbinlog to display the contents of relay log files written by a slave server in a replication setup because relay logs have the same format as binary logs. The binary log and relay log are discussed further in Section 5.4.4, “The Binary Log”, and Section 17.2.2, “Replication Relay and Status Logs”.

Invoke mysqlbinlog like this:

shell> mysqlbinlog [options] log_file ...

For example, to display the contents of the binary log file named binlog.000003, use this command:

shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.0000003

The output includes events contained in binlog.000003. For statement-based logging, event information includes the SQL statement, the ID of the server on which it was executed, the timestamp when the statement was executed, how much time it took, and so forth. For row-based logging, the event indicates a row change rather than an SQL statement. See Section 17.1.2, “Replication Formats”, for information about logging modes.

Events are preceded by header comments that provide additional information. For example:

# at 141
#100309  9:28:36 server id 123  end_log_pos 245
  Query thread_id=3350  exec_time=11  error_code=0

In the first line, the number following at indicates the file offset, or starting position, of the event in the binary log file.

The second line starts with a date and time indicating when the statement started on the server where the event originated. For replication, this timestamp is propagated to slave servers. server id is the server_id value of the server where the event originated. end_log_pos indicates where the next event starts (that is, it is the end position of the current event + 1). thread_id indicates which thread executed the event. exec_time is the time spent executing the event, on a master server. On a slave, it is the difference of the end execution time on the slave minus the beginning execution time on the master. The difference serves as an indicator of how much replication lags behind the master. error_code indicates the result from executing the event. Zero means that no error occurred.

Note

When using event groups, the file offsets of events may be grouped together and the comments of events may be grouped together. Do not mistake these grouped events for blank file offsets.

The output from mysqlbinlog can be re-executed (for example, by using it as input to mysql) to redo the statements in the log. This is useful for recovery operations after a server crash. For other usage examples, see the discussion later in this section and in Section 7.5, “Point-in-Time (Incremental) Recovery Using the Binary Log”.

Normally, you use mysqlbinlog to read binary log files directly and apply them to the local MySQL server. It is also possible to read binary logs from a remote server by using the --read-from-remote-server option. To read remote binary logs, the connection parameter options can be given to indicate how to connect to the server. These options are --host, --password, --port, --protocol, --socket, and --user; they are ignored except when you also use the --read-from-remote-server option.

When running mysqlbinlog against a large binary log, be careful that the filesystem has enough space for the resulting files. To configure the directory that mysqlbinlog uses for temporary files, use the TMPDIR environment variable.

mysqlbinlog supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysqlbinlog] and [client] groups of an option file. For information about option files used by MySQL programs, see Section 4.2.6, “Using Option Files”.

Table 4.17 mysqlbinlog Options

FormatDescriptionIntroducedRemoved
--base64-outputPrint binary log entries using base-64 encoding  
--character-sets-dirDirectory where character sets are installed  
--databaseList entries for just this database  
--debugWrite debugging log  
--debug-checkPrint debugging information when program exits  
--debug-infoPrint debugging information, memory, and CPU statistics when program exits  
--default-authAuthentication plugin to use5.5.10 
--defaults-extra-fileRead named option file in addition to usual option files  
--defaults-fileRead only named option file  
--defaults-group-suffixOption group suffix value  
--disable-log-binDisable binary logging  
--force-if-openRead binary log files even if open or not closed properly  
--force-readIf mysqlbinlog reads a binary log event that it does not recognize, it prints a warning  
--helpDisplay help message and exit  
--hexdumpDisplay a hex dump of the log in comments  
--hostConnect to MySQL server on given host  
--local-loadPrepare local temporary files for LOAD DATA INFILE in the specified directory  
--no-defaultsRead no option files  
--offsetSkip the first N entries in the log  
--passwordPassword to use when connecting to server  
--plugin-dirDirectory where plugins are installed5.5.10 
--portTCP/IP port number to use for connection  
--positionDeprecated. Use --start-position 5.5.3
--print-defaultsPrint default options  
--protocolConnection protocol to use  
--read-from-remote-serverRead binary log from MySQL server rather than local log file  
--result-fileDirect output to named file  
--server-idExtract only those events created by the server having the given server ID  
--server-id-bitsTell mysqlbinlog how to interpret server IDs in binary log when log was written by a mysqld having its server-id-bits set to less than the maximum; supported only by MySQL Cluster version of mysqlbinlog  
--set-charsetAdd a SET NAMES charset_name statement to the output  
--shared-memory-base-nameThe name of shared memory to use for shared-memory connections  
--short-formDisplay only the statements contained in the log  
--socketFor connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use  
--ssl-modeSecurity state of connection to server5.5.49 
--start-datetimeRead binary log from first event with timestamp equal to or later than datetime argument  
--start-positionRead binary log from first event with position equal to or greater than argument  
--stop-datetimeStop reading binary log at first event with timestamp equal to or greater than datetime argument  
--stop-positionStop reading binary log at first event with position equal to or greater than argument  
--to-last-logDo not stop at the end of requested binary log from a MySQL server, but rather continue printing to end of last binary log  
--userMySQL user name to use when connecting to server  
--verboseReconstruct row events as SQL statements  
--versionDisplay version information and exit  

  • --help, -?

    Display a help message and exit.

  • --base64-output[=value]

    This option determines when events should be displayed encoded as base-64 strings using BINLOG statements. The option has these permissible values (not case sensitive):

    • AUTO ("automatic") or UNSPEC ("unspecified") displays BINLOG statements automatically when necessary (that is, for format description events and row events). If no --base64-output option is given, the effect is the same as --base64-output=AUTO.

      Note

      Automatic BINLOG display is the only safe behavior if you intend to use the output of mysqlbinlog to re-execute binary log file contents. The other option values are intended only for debugging or testing purposes because they may produce output that does not include all events in executable form.

    • ALWAYS displays BINLOG statements whenever possible. If the --base64-output option is given without a value, the effect is the same as --base64-output=ALWAYS.

      Note

      Changes to replication in MySQL 5.6 make output generated by this option unusable, so ALWAYS is deprecated as of MySQL 5.5.8 and will be an invalid value in MySQL 5.6

    • NEVER causes BINLOG statements not to be displayed. mysqlbinlog exits with an error if a row event is found that must be displayed using BINLOG.

    • DECODE-ROWS specifies to mysqlbinlog that you intend for row events to be decoded and displayed as commented SQL statements by also specifying the --verbose option. Like NEVER, DECODE-ROWS suppresses display of BINLOG statements, but unlike NEVER, it does not exit with an error if a row event is found.

    For examples that show the effect of --base64-output and --verbose on row event output, see Section 4.6.7.2, “mysqlbinlog Row Event Display”.

  • --bind-address=ip_address

    On a computer having multiple network interfaces, use this option to select which interface to use for connecting to the MySQL server.

    This option is supported beginning with MySQL 5.5.8.

  • --character-sets-dir=dir_name

    The directory where character sets are installed. See Section 10.5, “Character Set Configuration”.

  • --database=db_name, -d db_name

    This option causes mysqlbinlog to output entries from the binary log (local log only) that occur while db_name is been selected as the default database by USE.

    The --database option for mysqlbinlog is similar to the --binlog-do-db option for mysqld, but can be used to specify only one database. If --database is given multiple times, only the last instance is used.

    The effects of this option depend on whether the statement-based or row-based logging format is in use, in the same way that the effects of --binlog-do-db depend on whether statement-based or row-based logging is in use.

    Statement-based logging.  The --database option works as follows:

    • While db_name is the default database, statements are output whether they modify tables in db_name or a different database.

    • Unless db_name is selected as the default database, statements are not output, even if they modify tables in db_name.

    • There is an exception for CREATE DATABASE, ALTER DATABASE, and DROP DATABASE. The database being created, altered, or dropped is considered to be the default database when determining whether to output the statement.

    Suppose that the binary log was created by executing these statements using statement-based-logging:

    INSERT INTO test.t1 (i) VALUES(100);
    INSERT INTO db2.t2 (j)  VALUES(200);
    USE test;
    INSERT INTO test.t1 (i) VALUES(101);
    INSERT INTO t1 (i)      VALUES(102);
    INSERT INTO db2.t2 (j)  VALUES(201);
    USE db2;
    INSERT INTO test.t1 (i) VALUES(103);
    INSERT INTO db2.t2 (j)  VALUES(202);
    INSERT INTO t2 (j)      VALUES(203);
    

    mysqlbinlog --database=test does not output the first two INSERT statements because there is no default database. It outputs the three INSERT statements following USE test, but not the three INSERT statements following USE db2.

    mysqlbinlog --database=db2 does not output the first two INSERT statements because there is no default database. It does not output the three INSERT statements following USE test, but does output the three INSERT statements following USE db2.

    Row-based logging.  mysqlbinlog outputs only entries that change tables belonging to db_name. The default database has no effect on this. Suppose that the binary log just described was created using row-based logging rather than statement-based logging. mysqlbinlog --database=test outputs only those entries that modify t1 in the test database, regardless of whether USE was issued or what the default database is.

    If a server is running with binlog_format set to MIXED and you want it to be possible to use mysqlbinlog with the --database option, you must ensure that tables that are modified are in the database selected by USE. (In particular, no cross-database updates should be used.)

    Note

    Prior to MySQL Cluster NDB 7.2.2, this option did not work correctly with MySQL Cluster tables unless, unless the binary log was generated using --log-bin-use-v1-row-events=0. (Bug #13067813)

  • --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

    Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is d:t:o,file_name. The default is d:t:o,/tmp/mysqlbinlog.trace.

  • --debug-check

    Print some debugging information when the program exits.

  • --debug-info

    Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits.

  • --default-auth=plugin

    A hint about the client-side authentication plugin to use. See Section 6.3.6, “Pluggable Authentication”.

    This option was added in MySQL 5.5.10.

  • --defaults-extra-file=file_name

    Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix) before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. Before MySQL 5.5.8, file_name must be the full path name to the file. As of MySQL 5.5.8, the name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name.

  • --defaults-file=file_name

    Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. Before MySQL 5.5.8, file_name must be the full path name to the file. As of MySQL 5.5.8, the name is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a relative path name.

  • --defaults-group-suffix=str

    Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of str. For example, mysqlbinlog normally reads the [client] and [mysqlbinlog] groups. If the --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, mysqlbinlog also reads the [client_other] and [mysqlbinlog_other] groups.

  • --disable-log-bin, -D

    Disable binary logging. This is useful for avoiding an endless loop if you use the --to-last-log option and are sending the output to the same MySQL server. This option also is useful when restoring after a crash to avoid duplication of the statements you have logged.

    This option requires that you have the SUPER privilege. It causes mysqlbinlog to include a SET sql_log_bin = 0 statement in its output to disable binary logging of the remaining output. The SET statement is ineffective unless you have the SUPER privilege.

  • --force-if-open, -F

    Read binary log files even if they are open or were not closed properly.

  • --force-read, -f

    With this option, if mysqlbinlog reads a binary log event that it does not recognize, it prints a warning, ignores the event, and continues. Without this option, mysqlbinlog stops if it reads such an event.

  • --hexdump, -H

    Display a hex dump of the log in comments, as described in Section 4.6.7.1, “mysqlbinlog Hex Dump Format”. The hex output can be helpful for replication debugging.

  • --host=host_name, -h host_name

    Get the binary log from the MySQL server on the given host.

  • --local-load=dir_name, -l dir_name

    Prepare local temporary files for LOAD DATA INFILE in the specified directory.

    Important

    These temporary files are not automatically removed by mysqlbinlog or any other MySQL program.

  • --no-defaults

    Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be used to prevent them from being read.

  • --offset=N, -o N

    Skip the first N entries in the log.

  • --password[=password], -p[password]

    The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option and the password. If you omit the password value following the --password or -p option on the command line, mysqlbinlog prompts for one.

    Specifying a password on the command line should be considered insecure. See Section 6.1.2.1, “End-User Guidelines for Password Security”. You can use an option file to avoid giving the password on the command line.

  • --plugin-dir=dir_name

    The directory in which to look for plugins. Specify this option if the --default-auth option is used to specify an authentication plugin but mysqlbinlog does not find it. See Section 6.3.6, “Pluggable Authentication”.

    This option was added in MySQL 5.5.10.

  • --port=port_num, -P port_num

    The TCP/IP port number to use for connecting to a remote server.

  • --position=N

    Deprecated. Use --start-position instead. --position was removed in MySQL 5.5.3.

  • --print-defaults

    Print the program name and all options that it gets from option files.

  • --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

    The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see Section 4.2.2, “Connecting to the MySQL Server”.

  • --read-from-remote-server, -R

    Read the binary log from a MySQL server rather than reading a local log file. Any connection parameter options are ignored unless this option is given as well. These options are --host, --password, --port, --protocol, --socket, and --user.

    This option requires that the remote server be running. It works only for binary log files on the remote server, not relay log files.

  • --result-file=name, -r name

    Direct output to the given file.

  • --server-id=id

    Display only those events created by the server having the given server ID.

  • --server-id-bits=N

    Use only the first N bits of the server_id to identify the server. If the binary log was written by a mysqld with server-id-bits set to less than 32 and user data stored in the most significant bit, running mysqlbinlog with --server-id-bits set to 32 enables this data to be seen.

    This option is supported only by the versions of mysqlbinlog supplied with the MySQL Cluster distribution, or built from the MySQL Cluster sources.

  • --set-charset=charset_name

    Add a SET NAMES charset_name statement to the output to specify the character set to be used for processing log files.

  • --shared-memory-base-name=name

    On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections made using shared memory to a local server. The default value is MYSQL. The shared-memory name is case sensitive.

    The server must be started with the --shared-memory option to enable shared-memory connections.

  • --short-form, -s

    Display only the statements contained in the log, without any extra information or row-based events. This is for testing only, and should not be used in production systems.

  • --socket=path, -S path

    For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

  • --start-datetime=datetime

    Start reading the binary log at the first event having a timestamp equal to or later than the datetime argument. The datetime value is relative to the local time zone on the machine where you run mysqlbinlog. The value should be in a format accepted for the DATETIME or TIMESTAMP data types. For example:

    shell> mysqlbinlog --start-datetime="2005-12-25 11:25:56" binlog.000003
    

    This option is useful for point-in-time recovery. See Section 7.3, “Example Backup and Recovery Strategy”.

  • --start-position=N, -j N

    Start reading the binary log at the first event having a position equal to or greater than N. This option applies to the first log file named on the command line.

    This option is useful for point-in-time recovery. See Section 7.3, “Example Backup and Recovery Strategy”.

  • --stop-datetime=datetime

    Stop reading the binary log at the first event having a timestamp equal to or later than the datetime argument. This option is useful for point-in-time recovery. See the description of the --start-datetime option for information about the datetime value.

    This option is useful for point-in-time recovery. See Section 7.3, “Example Backup and Recovery Strategy”.

  • --stop-position=N

    Stop reading the binary log at the first event having a position equal to or greater than N. This option applies to the last log file named on the command line.

    This option is useful for point-in-time recovery. See Section 7.3, “Example Backup and Recovery Strategy”.

  • --to-last-log, -t

    Do not stop at the end of the requested binary log from a MySQL server, but rather continue printing until the end of the last binary log. If you send the output to the same MySQL server, this may lead to an endless loop. This option requires --read-from-remote-server.

  • --user=user_name, -u user_name

    The MySQL user name to use when connecting to a remote server.

  • --verbose, -v

    Reconstruct row events and display them as commented SQL statements. If this option is given twice, the output includes comments to indicate column data types and some metadata.

    For examples that show the effect of --base64-output and --verbose on row event output, see Section 4.6.7.2, “mysqlbinlog Row Event Display”.

  • --version, -V

    Display version information and exit.

    In MySQL 5.5, the version number shown for mysqlbinlog is always 3.3.

You can also set the following variable by using --var_name=value syntax:

  • open_files_limit

    Specify the number of open file descriptors to reserve.

You can pipe the output of mysqlbinlog into the mysql client to execute the events contained in the binary log. This technique is used to recover from a crash when you have an old backup (see Section 7.5, “Point-in-Time (Incremental) Recovery Using the Binary Log”). For example:

shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 | mysql -u root -p

Or:

shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.[0-9]* | mysql -u root -p

You can also redirect the output of mysqlbinlog to a text file instead, if you need to modify the statement log first (for example, to remove statements that you do not want to execute for some reason). After editing the file, execute the statements that it contains by using it as input to the mysql program:

shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 > tmpfile
shell> ... edit tmpfile ...
shell> mysql -u root -p < tmpfile

When mysqlbinlog is invoked with the --start-position option, it displays only those events with an offset in the binary log greater than or equal to a given position (the given position must match the start of one event). It also has options to stop and start when it sees an event with a given date and time. This enables you to perform point-in-time recovery using the --stop-datetime option (to be able to say, for example, roll forward my databases to how they were today at 10:30 a.m.).

If you have more than one binary log to execute on the MySQL server, the safe method is to process them all using a single connection to the server. Here is an example that demonstrates what may be unsafe:

shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 | mysql -u root -p # DANGER!!
shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000002 | mysql -u root -p # DANGER!!

Processing binary logs this way using multiple connections to the server causes problems if the first log file contains a CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE statement and the second log contains a statement that uses the temporary table. When the first mysql process terminates, the server drops the temporary table. When the second mysql process attempts to use the table, the server reports unknown table.

To avoid problems like this, use a single mysql process to execute the contents of all binary logs that you want to process. Here is one way to do so:

shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 binlog.000002 | mysql -u root -p

Another approach is to write all the logs to a single file and then process the file:

shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000001 >  /tmp/statements.sql
shell> mysqlbinlog binlog.000002 >> /tmp/statements.sql
shell> mysql -u root -p -e "source /tmp/statements.sql"

mysqlbinlog can produce output that reproduces a LOAD DATA INFILE operation without the original data file. mysqlbinlog copies the data to a temporary file and writes a LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE statement that refers to the file. The default location of the directory where these files are written is system-specific. To specify a directory explicitly, use the --local-load option.

Because mysqlbinlog converts LOAD DATA INFILE statements to LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE statements (that is, it adds LOCAL), both the client and the server that you use to process the statements must be configured with the LOCAL capability enabled. See Section 6.1.6, “Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL”.

Warning

The temporary files created for LOAD DATA LOCAL statements are not automatically deleted because they are needed until you actually execute those statements. You should delete the temporary files yourself after you no longer need the statement log. The files can be found in the temporary file directory and have names like original_file_name-#-#.


User Comments
  Posted by Tom Mulkins on September 23, 2003
I had some problems using mysqlbinlog with temporary files. It would have helped to have an explanation above but here is a brief example:

mysqlbinlog -d mydb -r mydb.sql mydb-bin.001

/*The above command will create a file called mydb.sql in my CWD(current working directory) with queries extracted from binary log mydb-bin.001 for mydb database queries only*/

Now say I had some load data infile statements in my binary log. If my /tmp directory did not contain those files mysqbinlog would create them for me. Here's th problem, if the file aready exists mysqlbinlog will error out with message File: 'tmp/XXX.csv' not found. Yet if you look in your /tmp directory there it is! Don't panic...mysqlbinlog won't write over an existing file and there is no flag to do so (in my opinion there should be that option).

Now you could delete the files from your /tmp directory and et mysqlbinlog recreate them for you but it is simpler to create a tmp directory in your CWD like this:

mkdir tmp

Now use the mysqlbinlog flag --local-load to specify your CWD/tmp directory to WRITE the files like this:

mysqlbinlog -d mydb -r mydb.sql --local-load="tmp/" mydb-bin.001

Your files will be created in CWD/tmp. Should you need to run the mysqlbinlog utilty again just rm CWD/tmp/* and run the utility again.

Hope this helps,
Tom
  Posted by KEvin on February 9, 2005
Some things to know about mysqlbinlog which did not strike me as obvious (also it is hinted by the doc) :

--read-from-remote-server :
1) with this option you can only read files present in binary_log-bin.index on the master so you cannot read relay log files on the distant server
2) the distant mysql server must be up (you cannot just read the distant files), so it loses much of its utility : if the distant master is up you can "start slave" or "change master to MASTER_LOG_FILE=...".
But if the master is down and you want to get the latest changes you must copy the remote (with scp for example) binary logs and then run mysqlbinlog locally ...

--start-position (or --position) :
1) it must be the exact position of an event.
2) it is the first position that will be read so you must not use the "Read_Master_Log_Pos" (as shown by "show slave status") which is the position of the last event done.
You have to use :
--start-position=Read_Master_Log_Pos --offset=1 Master_Log_File
to skip the first event.
As Read_Master_Log_Pos is one of the most easy position to get it is a pity that you have to specify the offset each time...

  Posted by john danilson on September 8, 2006
I found the --start-datetime and --stop-datetime to be finicky about the format. While yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss work fine elsewhere, this expected yy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss to work.
  Posted by Yiannis Mavridis on April 30, 2007
Regarding KEvin
--start-position (or --position) :
1) it must be the exact position of an event.
2) it is the first position that will be read so you must not use the "Read_Master_Log_Pos" (as shown by "show slave status") which is the position of the last event done.
You have to use :
--start-position=Read_Master_Log_Pos --offset=1 Master_Log_File
to skip the first event.
As Read_Master_Log_Pos is one of the most easy position to get it is a pity that you have to specify the offset each time...

I tested and i found that you do not need to use the offset=1 like KEvin is saying above, because the exec_master_log_pos on the 'show slave status' view contains the next not yet executed command of the binlog
  Posted by Baron Schwartz on December 13, 2007
On Linux, you can use -l /dev/null to avoid the temp files if you're just looking through the output. mysqlbinlog will complain, but it won't create the file and it won't create the corresponding LOAD DATA INFILE statement (because it couldn't create the file).

This is useful if your log files have a lot of very large LOAD DATA INFILE statements, and you don't want to incur the overhead of writing them to disk and then deleting them.
  Posted by Jason Ho on August 19, 2008
If the sql generated by mysqlbinlog is not processed by mysql, this could be the root cause:

http://bugs.mysql.com/bug.php?id=34541
(And that you have configured your server to execute "set autocommit=0" on client connect.)

An indication is that the mysql client complains on this line:

SET /*!*/;

A workaround would be replacing the bad line:

mysqlbinlog mysql-bin.000011 | sed -e 's/SET \/\*\!\*\//SET AUTOCOMMIT=0/g' | mysql
  Posted by Jim Grill on September 19, 2008
This may seem obvious but I had to help someone with this...

If you use the --start-datetime= option and you have a large binlog, be patient. It may take a while to return results. Don't hit control+c thinking it's broken or something. Just wait patiently for what you're looking for to be found.
  Posted by Phillip Gee on March 11, 2009
Yiannis Mavridis is right.

Don't listen to KEvin and use the --offset=1 switch, it will miss the first command. If there's only been one command since the downtime then you won't be updating your slave.

Caused me a world of pain listening to this while testing.
Sign Up Login You must be logged in to post a comment.