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Security in MySQL  /  ...  /  Writing Audit Log Filter Definitions

7.5.6.2 Writing Audit Log Filter Definitions

Filter definitions are JSON values. For information about using JSON data in MySQL, see The JSON Data Type.

Filter definitions have this form, where actions indicates how filtering takes place:

{ "filter": actions }

The following discussion describes permitted constructs in filter definitions.

Logging All Events

To explicitly enable or disable logging of all events, use a log element in the filter:

{
  "filter": { "log": true }
}

The log value can be either true or false.

The preceding filter enables logging of all events. It is equivalent to:

{
  "filter": { }
}

Logging behavior depends on the log value and whether class or event items are specified:

  • With log specified, its given value is used.

  • Without log specified, logging is true if no class or event item is specified, and false otherwise (in which case, class or event can include their own log item).

Logging Specific Event Classes

To log events of a specific class, use a class element in the filter, with its name field denoting the name of the class to log:

{
  "filter": {
    "class": { "name": "connection" }
  }
}

The name value can be connection, general, or table_access to log connection, general, or table-access events, respectively.

The preceding filter enables logging of events in the connection class. It is equivalent to the following filter with log items made explicit:

{
  "filter": {
    "log": false,
    "class": { "log": true,
               "name": "connection" }
  }
}

To enable logging of multiple classes, define the class value as a JSON array element that names the classes:

{
  "filter": {
    "class": [
      { "name": "connection" },
      { "name": "general" },
      { "name": "table_access" }
    ]
  }
}
Note

When multiple instances of a given item appear at the same level within a filter definition, the item values can be combined into a single instance of that item within an array value. The preceding definition can be written like this:

{
  "filter": {
    "class": [
      { "name": [ "connection", "general", "table_access" ] }
    ]
  }
}
Logging Specific Event Subclasses

To select specific event subclasses, use an event item containing a name item that names the subclasses. The default action for events selected by an event item is to log them. For example, this filter enables logging for the named event subclasses:

{
  "filter": {
    "class": [
      {
        "name": "connection",
        "event": [
          { "name": "connect" },
          { "name": "disconnect" }
        ]
      },
      { "name": "general" },
      {
        "name": "table_access",
        "event": [
          { "name": "insert" },
          { "name": "delete" },
          { "name": "update" }
        ]
      }
    ]
  }
}

The event item can also contain explicit log items to indicate whether to log qualifying events. This event item selects multiple events and explicitly indicates logging behavior for them:

"event": [
  { "name": "read", "log": false },
  { "name": "insert", "log": true },
  { "name": "delete", "log": true },
  { "name": "update", "log": true }
]

As of MySQL 5.7.20, the event item can also indicate whether to block qualifying events, if it contains an abort item. For details, see Blocking Execution of Specific Events.

Table 7.17, “Event Class and Subclass Combinations” describes the permitted subclass values for each event class.

Table 7.17 Event Class and Subclass Combinations

Event Class Event Subclass Description
connection connect Connection initiation (successful or unsuccessful)
connection change_user User re-authentication with different user/password during session
connection disconnect Connection termination
general status General operation information
table_access read Table read statements, such as SELECT or INSERT INTO ... SELECT
table_access delete Table delete statements, such as DELETE or TRUNCATE TABLE
table_access insert Table insert statements, such as INSERT or REPLACE
table_access update Table update statements, such as UPDATE

Table 7.18, “Log and Abort Characteristics Per Event Class and Subclass Combination” describes for each event subclass whether it can be logged or aborted.

Table 7.18 Log and Abort Characteristics Per Event Class and Subclass Combination

Event Class Event Subclass Can be Logged Can be Aborted
connection connect Yes No
connection change_user Yes No
connection disconnect Yes No
general status Yes No
table_access read Yes Yes
table_access delete Yes Yes
table_access insert Yes Yes
table_access update Yes Yes

Inclusive and Exclusive Logging

A filter can be defined in inclusive or exclusive mode:

  • Inclusive mode logs only explicitly specified items.

  • Exclusive mode logs everything but explicitly specified items.

To perform inclusive logging, disable logging globally and enable logging for specific classes. This filter logs connect and disconnect events in the connection class, and events in the general class:

{
  "filter": {
    "log": false,
    "class": [
      {
        "name": "connection",
        "event": [
          { "name": "connect", "log": true },
          { "name": "disconnect", "log": true }
        ]
      },
      { "name": "general", "log": true }
    ]
  }
}

To perform exclusive logging, enable logging globally and disable logging for specific classes. This filter logs everything except events in the general class:

{
  "filter": {
    "log": true,
    "class":
      { "name": "general", "log": false }
  }
}

This filter logs change_user events in the connection class, and table_access events:

{
  "filter": {
    "log": true,
    "class": [
      {
        "name": "connection",
        "event": [
          { "name": "connect", "log": false },
          { "name": "disconnect", "log": false }
        ]
      },
      { "name": "general", "log": false }
    ]
  }
}
Testing Event Field Values

To enable logging based on specific event field values, specify a field item within the log item that indicates the field name and its expected value:

{
  "filter": {
    "class": {
    "name": "general",
      "event": {
        "name": "status",
        "log": {
          "field": { "name": "general_command.str", "value": "Query" }
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

Each event contains event class-specific fields that can be accessed from within a filter to perform custom filtering.

A connection event indicates when a connection-related activity occurs during a session, such as a user connecting to or disconnecting from the server. Table 7.19, “Connection Event Fields” indicates the permitted fields for connection events.

Table 7.19 Connection Event Fields

Field Name Field Type Description
status integer

Event status:

0: OK

Otherwise: Failed

connection_id unsigned integer Connection ID
user.str string User name specified during authentication
user.length unsigned integer User name length
priv_user.str string Authenticated user name (account user name)
priv_user.length unsigned integer Authenticated user name length
external_user.str string External user name (provided by third-party authentication plugin)
external_user.length unsigned integer External user name length
proxy_user.str string Proxy user name
proxy_user.length unsigned integer Proxy user name length
host.str string Connected user host
host.length unsigned integer Connected user host length
ip.str string Connected user IP address
ip.length unsigned integer Connected user IP address length
database.str string Database name specified at connect time
database.length unsigned integer Database name length
connection_type integer

Connection type:

or "::undefined": Undefined

or "::tcp/ip": TCP/IP

or "::socket": Socket

or "::named_pipe": Named pipe

or "::ssl": TCP/IP with encryption

or "::shared_memory": Shared memory


The "::xxx" values are symbolic pseudo-constants that may be given instead of the literal numeric values. They must be quoted as strings and are case-sensitive.

A general event indicates the status code of an operation and its details. Table 7.20, “General Event Fields” indicates the permitted fields for general events.

Table 7.20 General Event Fields

Field Name Field Type Description
general_error_code integer

Event status:

0: OK

Otherwise: Failed

general_thread_id unsigned integer Connection/thread ID
general_user.str string User name specified during authentication
general_user.length unsigned integer User name length
general_command.str string Command name
general_command.length unsigned integer Command name length
general_query.str string SQL statement text
general_query.length unsigned integer SQL statement text length
general_host.str string Host name
general_host.length unsigned integer Host name length
general_sql_command.str string SQL command type name
general_sql_command.length unsigned integer SQL command type name length
general_external_user.str string External user name (provided by third-party authentication plugin)
general_external_user.length unsigned integer External user name length
general_ip.str string Connected user IP address
general_ip.length unsigned integer Connection user IP address length

general_command.str indicates a command name: Query, Execute, Quit, or Change user.

A general event with the general_command.str field set to Query or Execute contains general_sql_command.str set to a value that specifies the type of SQL command: alter_db, alter_db_upgrade, admin_commands, and so forth. These values can be seen as the last components of the Performance Schema instruments displayed by this statement:

mysql> SELECT NAME FROM performance_schema.setup_instruments
       WHERE NAME LIKE 'statement/sql/%' ORDER BY NAME;
+---------------------------------------+
| NAME                                  |
+---------------------------------------+
| statement/sql/alter_db                |
| statement/sql/alter_db_upgrade        |
| statement/sql/alter_event             |
| statement/sql/alter_function          |
| statement/sql/alter_instance          |
| statement/sql/alter_procedure         |
| statement/sql/alter_server            |
...

A table-access event provides information about specific table accesses. Table 7.21, “Table-Access Event Fields” indicates the permitted fields for table-access events.

Table 7.21 Table-Access Event Fields

Field Name Field Type Description
connection_id unsigned integer Event connection ID
sql_command_id integer SQL command ID
query.str string SQL statement text
query.length unsigned integer SQL statement text length
table_database.str string Database name associated with event
table_database.length unsigned integer Database name length
table_name.str string Table name associated with event
table_name.length unsigned integer Table name length

The following list shows which statements produce which table-access events:

  • read event:

    • SELECT

    • INSERT ... SELECT (for tables referenced in SELECT clause)

    • REPLACE ... SELECT (for tables referenced in SELECT clause)

    • UPDATE ... WHERE (for tables referenced in WHERE clause)

    • HANDLER ... READ

  • delete event:

    • DELETE

    • TRUNCATE TABLE

  • insert event:

    • INSERT

    • INSERT ... SELECT (for table referenced in INSERT clause)

    • REPLACE

    • REPLACE ... SELECT (for table referenced in REPLACE clause

    • LOAD DATA INFILE

    • LOAD XML INFILE

  • update event:

    • UPDATE

    • UPDATE ... WHERE (for tables referenced in UPDATE clause)

Blocking Execution of Specific Events

As of MySQL 5.7.20, event items can include an abort item that indicates whether to prevent qualifying events from executing. For example, abort enables rules to be written that block execution of specific SQL statements.

The abort item must appear within an event item. For example:

"event": {
  "name": qualifying event subclass names
  "abort": condition
}

For event subclasses selected by the name item, the abort action is true or false, depending on condition evaluation. If the condition evaluates to true, the event is blocked. Otherwise, the event continues executing.

The condition specification can be as simple as true or false, or it can be more complex such that evaluation depends on event characteristics.

This filter blocks INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements:

{
  "filter": {
    "class": {
      "name": "table_access",
      "event": {
        "name": [ "insert", "update", "delete" ],
        "abort": true
      }
    }
  }
}

This more complex filter blocks the same statements, but only for a specific table (finances.bank_account):

{
  "filter": {
    "class": {
      "name": "table_access",
      "event": {
        "name": [ "insert", "update", "delete" ],
        "abort": {
          "and": [
            { "field": { "name": "table_database.str", "value": "finances" } },
            { "field": { "name": "table_name.str", "value": "bank_account" } }
          ]
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

Statements matched and blocked by the filter return an error to the client:

ERROR 1045 (28000): Statement was aborted by an audit log filter

Not all events can be blocked (see Table 7.18, “Log and Abort Characteristics Per Event Class and Subclass Combination”). For an event that cannot, the audit log writes a warning to the error log rather than blocking it.

For attempts to define a filter in which the abort item appears elsewhere than in an event item, an error occurs.

Logical Operators

Logical operators (and, or, not) can be used in log items. This permits construction of more advanced filtering configurations:

{
  "filter": {
    "class": {
      "name": "general",
      "event": {
        "name": "status",
        "log": {
          "or": [
            {
              "and": [
                { "field": { "name": "general_command.str",    "value": "Query" } },
                { "field": { "name": "general_command.length", "value": 5 } }
              ]
            },
            {
              "and": [
                { "field": { "name": "general_command.str",    "value": "Execute" } },
                { "field": { "name": "general_command.length", "value": 7 } }
              ]
            }
          ]
        }
      }
    }
  }
}
Referencing Predefined Variables

To refer to a predefined variable in a log condition, use a variable item, which tests equality against a given value:

{
  "filter": {
    "class": {
      "name": "general",
      "event": {
        "name": "status",
        "log": {
          "variable": {
            "name": "audit_log_connection_policy_value", "value": "::none"
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

Each predefined variable corresponds to a system variable. By writing a filter that tests a predefined variable, you can modify filter operation by setting the corresponding system variable, without having to redefine the filter. For example, by writing a filter that tests the value of the audit_log_connection_policy_value predefined variable, you can modify filter operation by changing the value of the audit_log_connection_policy system variable.

The audit_log_xxx_policy system variables are used for the legacy mode audit log (see Section 7.5.7, “Legacy Mode Audit Log Filtering”). With rule-based audit log filtering, those variables remain visible (for example, using SHOW VARIABLES), but changes to them have no effect unless you write filters containing constructs that refer to them.

The following list describes the permitted predefined variables for variable items:

  • audit_log_connection_policy_value

    This variable corresponds to the value of the audit_log_connection_policy system variable. The value is an unsigned integer. Table 7.22, “audit_log_connection_policy_value Values” shows the permitted values and the corresponding audit_log_connection_policy values.

    Table 7.22 audit_log_connection_policy_value Values

    Value Corresponding audit_log_connection_policy Value
    0 or "::none" NONE
    1 or "::errors" ERRORS
    2 or "::all" ALL

    The "::xxx" values are symbolic pseudo-constants that may be given instead of the literal numeric values. They must be quoted as strings and are case-sensitive.

  • audit_log_policy_value

    This variable corresponds to the value of the audit_log_policy system variable. The value is an unsigned integer. Table 7.23, “audit_log_policy_value Values” shows the permitted values and the corresponding audit_log_policy values.

    Table 7.23 audit_log_policy_value Values

    Value Corresponding audit_log_policy Value
    0 or "::none" NONE
    1 or "::logins" LOGINS
    2 or "::all" ALL
    3 or "::queries" QUERIES

    The "::xxx" values are symbolic pseudo-constants that may be given instead of the literal numeric values. They must be quoted as strings and are case-sensitive.

  • audit_log_statement_policy_value

    This variable corresponds to the value of the audit_log_statement_policy system variable. The value is an unsigned integer. Table 7.24, “audit_log_statement_policy_value Values” shows the permitted values and the corresponding audit_log_statement_policy values.

    Table 7.24 audit_log_statement_policy_value Values

    Value Corresponding audit_log_statement_policy Value
    0 or "::none" NONE
    1 or "::errors" ERRORS
    2 or "::all" ALL

    The "::xxx" values are symbolic pseudo-constants that may be given instead of the literal numeric values. They must be quoted as strings and are case-sensitive.

Referencing Predefined Functions

To refer to a predefined function in a log condition, use a function item, which takes name and args values to specify the function name and its arguments, respectively:

{
  "filter": {
    "class": {
      "name": "general",
      "event": {
        "name": "status",
        "log": {
          "function": {
            "name": "find_in_include_list",
            "args": [ { "string": [ { "field": "user.str" },
                                    { "string": "@"},
                                    { "field": "host.str" } ] } ]
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

The function as specified in the name item should be the function name only, without parentheses or the argument list. Arguments in the args item, if there is one, must be given in the order listed in the function description. Arguments can refer to predefined variables, event fields, or string or numeric constants.

The preceding filter determines whether to log general class status events depending on whether the current user is found in the audit_log_include_accounts system variable. That user is constructed using fields in the event.

The following list describes the permitted predefined functions for function items:

  • audit_log_exclude_accounts_is_null()

    Checks whether the audit_log_exclude_accounts system variable is NULL. This function can be helpful when defining filters that correspond to the legacy audit log implementation.

    Arguments:

    None.

  • audit_log_include_accounts_is_null()

    Checks whether the audit_log_include_accounts system variable is NULL. This function can be helpful when defining filters that correspond to the legacy audit log implementation.

    Arguments:

    None.

  • debug_sleep(millisec)

    Sleeps for the given number of milliseconds. This function is used during performance measurement.

    debug_sleep() is available for debug builds only.

    Arguments:

    • millisec: An unsigned integer that specifies the number of milliseconds to sleep.

  • find_in_exclude_list(account)

    Checks whether an account string exists in the audit log exclude list (the value of the audit_log_exclude_accounts system variable).

    Arguments:

    • account: A string that specifies the user account name.

  • find_in_include_list(account)

    Checks whether an account string exists in the audit log include list (the value of the audit_log_include_accounts system variable).

    Arguments:

    • account: A string that specifies the user account name.

  • string_find(text, substr)

    Checks whether the substr value is contained in the text value. This search is case-sensitive.

    Arguments:

    • text: The text string to search.

    • substr: The substring to search for in text.

Replacing a User Filter

In some cases, the filter definition can be changed dynamically. To do this, define a filter configuration within an existing filter. For example:

{
  "filter": {
    "id": "main",
    "class": {
      "name": "table_access",
      "event": {
        "name": [ "update", "delete" ],
        "log": false,
        "filter": {
          "class": {
            "name": "general",
            "event" : { "name": "status",
                        "filter": { "ref": "main" } }
          },
          "activate": {
            "or": [
              { "field": { "name": "table_name.str", "value": "temp_1" } },
              { "field": { "name": "table_name.str", "value": "temp_2" } }
            ]
          }
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

A new filter is activated when the activate element within a subfilter evaluates to true. Using activate in a top-level filter is not permitted.

A new filter can be replaced with the original one by using a ref item inside the subfilter to refer to the original filter id.

The filter shown operates like this:

  • The main filter waits for table_access events, either update or delete.

  • If the update or delete table_access event occurs on the temp_1 or temp_2 table, the filter is replaced with the internal one (without an id, since there is no need to refer to it explicitly).

  • If the end of the command is signalled (general / status event), an entry is written to the audit log file and the filter is replaced with the main filter.

The filter is useful to log statements that update or delete anything from the temp_1 or temp_2 tables, such as this one:

UPDATE temp_1, temp_3 SET temp_1.a=21, temp_3.a=23;

The statement generates multiple table_access events, but the audit log file will contain only general / status entries.

Note

Any id values used in the definition are evaluated with respect only to that definition. They have nothing to do with the value of the audit_log_filter_id system variable.


User Comments
User comments in this section are, as the name implies, provided by MySQL users. The MySQL documentation team is not responsible for, nor do they endorse, any of the information provided here.
  Posted by Maxence LEBORGNE on March 5, 2018
Useful exclusive logging filters :

set @auditall_exceptdqldml_filter =
'{
"filter": {
"log": true,
"class": [
{
"name": "table_access",
"log": false
},
{
"name": "general",
"event": {
"name": "status",
"log": {
"not": {
"and": [
{
"or": [
{"field": { "name": "general_command.str", "value": "Query" }},
{"field": { "name": "general_command.str", "value": "Execute" }}
]
},
{
"or": [
{"field": { "name": "general_sql_command.str", "value": "commit" }},
{"field": { "name": "general_sql_command.str", "value": "rollback" }},
{"field": { "name": "general_sql_command.str", "value": "select" }},
{"field": { "name": "general_sql_command.str", "value": "replace" }},
{"field": { "name": "general_sql_command.str", "value": "insert" }},
{"field": { "name": "general_sql_command.str", "value": "insert_select" }},
{"field": { "name": "general_sql_command.str", "value": "update" }},
{"field": { "name": "general_sql_command.str", "value": "update_multi" }},
{"field": { "name": "general_sql_command.str", "value": "delete" }},
{"field": { "name": "general_sql_command.str", "value": "delete_multi" }}
]
}
]
}
}
}
}
]
}
}';

set @auditall_exceptdml_filter =
'{
"filter": {
"log": true,
"class": [
{
"name": "table_access",
"event": [
{ "name": "insert", "log": false },
{ "name": "delete", "log": false },
{ "name": "update", "log": false }
]
},
{
"name": "general",
"event": {
"name": "status",
"log": {
"not": {
"and": [
{
"or": [
{"field": { "name": "general_command.str", "value": "Query" }},
{"field": { "name": "general_command.str", "value": "Execute" }}
]
},
{
"or": [
{"field": { "name": "general_sql_command.str", "value": "commit" }},
{"field": { "name": "general_sql_command.str", "value": "rollback" }},
{"field": { "name": "general_sql_command.str", "value": "replace" }},
{"field": { "name": "general_sql_command.str", "value": "insert" }},
{"field": { "name": "general_sql_command.str", "value": "insert_select" }},
{"field": { "name": "general_sql_command.str", "value": "update" }},
{"field": { "name": "general_sql_command.str", "value": "update_multi" }},
{"field": { "name": "general_sql_command.str", "value": "delete" }},
{"field": { "name": "general_sql_command.str", "value": "delete_multi" }}
]
}
]
}
}
}
}
]
}
}';
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