Replication works because events written to the binary log are read from the source and then processed on the replica. The events are recorded within the binary log in different formats according to the type of event. The different replication formats used correspond to the binary logging format used when the events were recorded in the source's binary log. The correlation between binary logging formats and the terms used during replication are:
When using statement-based binary logging, the source writes SQL statements to the binary log. Replication of the source to the replica works by executing the SQL statements on the replica. This is called statement-based replication (which can be abbreviated as SBR), which corresponds to the MySQL statement-based binary logging format.
When using row-based logging, the source writes events to the binary log that indicate how individual table rows are changed. Replication of the source to the replica works by copying the events representing the changes to the table rows to the replica. This is called row-based replication (which can be abbreviated as RBR).
Row-based logging is the default method.
You can also configure MySQL to use a mix of both statement-based and row-based logging, depending on which is most appropriate for the change to be logged. This is called mixed-format logging. When using mixed-format logging, a statement-based log is used by default. Depending on certain statements, and also the storage engine being used, the log is automatically switched to row-based in particular cases. Replication using the mixed format is referred to as mixed-based replication or mixed-format replication. For more information, see Mixed Binary Logging Format.
The default binary logging format in MySQL NDB Cluster 8.0 is
MIXED. You should note that NDB Cluster
Replication always uses row-based replication, and that the
NDB storage engine is incompatible
with statement-based replication. See
General Requirements for NDB Cluster Replication, for more
MIXED format, the binary logging
format is determined in part by the storage engine being used and
the statement being executed. For more information on mixed-format
logging and the rules governing the support of different logging
formats, see Mixed Binary Logging Format.
The logging format in a running MySQL server is controlled by
system variable. This variable can be set with session or global
scope. The rules governing when and how the new setting takes
effect are the same as for other MySQL server system variables.
Setting the variable for the current session lasts only until the
end of that session, and the change is not visible to other
sessions. Setting the variable globally takes effect for clients
that connect after the change, but not for any current client
sessions, including the session where the variable setting was
changed. To make the global system variable setting permanent so
that it applies across server restarts, you must set it in an
option file. For more information, see
SET Syntax for Variable Assignment.
There are conditions under which you cannot change the binary logging format at runtime or doing so causes replication to fail. See Setting The Binary Log Format.
Changing the global
value requires privileges sufficient to set global system
variables. Changing the session
binlog_format value requires
privileges sufficient to set restricted session system variables.
See System Variable Privileges.
Changing the binary logging format
binlog_format system variable)
is deprecated as of MySQL 8.0.34. In a future version of MySQL,
you can expect
be removed altogether, and for the row-based format to become
the only logging format used by MySQL.
The statement-based and row-based replication formats have different issues and limitations. For a comparison of their relative advantages and disadvantages, see Section 5.1.1, “Advantages and Disadvantages of Statement-Based and Row-Based Replication”.
With statement-based replication, you may encounter issues with replicating stored routines or triggers. You can avoid these issues by using row-based replication instead. For more information, see Stored Program Binary Logging.