mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL Server. mysql_upgrade also upgrades the system tables so that you can take advantage of new privileges or capabilities that might have been added.
mysql_upgrade should be executed each time you upgrade MySQL.
If mysql_upgrade finds that a table has a possible incompatibility, it performs a table check and, if problems are found, attempts a table repair. If the table cannot be repaired, see Section 2.11.4, “Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes” for manual table repair strategies.
On Windows Server 2008, Vista, and newer, you must run mysql_upgrade with administrator privileges. You can do this by running a Command Prompt as Administrator and running the command. Failure to do so may result in the upgrade failing to execute correctly.
You should always back up your current MySQL installation before performing an upgrade. See Section 7.2, “Database Backup Methods”.
Some upgrade incompatibilities may require special handling before you upgrade your MySQL installation and run mysql_upgrade. See Section 2.11.1, “Upgrading MySQL”, for instructions on determining whether any such incompatibilities apply to your installation and how to handle them.
To use mysql_upgrade, make sure that the server is running, and then invoke it like this:
After running mysql_upgrade, stop the server and restart it so that any changes made to the system tables take effect.
mysql_upgrade executes the following commands to check and repair tables and to upgrade the system tables:
mysqlcheck --all-databases --check-upgrade --auto-repair mysql <
fix_priv_tablesmysqlcheck --all-databases --check-upgrade --fix-db-names --fix-table-names
Notes about the preceding commands:
Because mysql_upgrade invokes
mysqlcheck with the
it processes all tables in all databases, which might take a
long time to complete. Each table is locked and therefore
unavailable to other sessions while it is being processed.
Check and repair operations can be time-consuming,
particularly for large tables.
fix_priv_tables represents a
script generated internally by
mysql_upgrade that contains SQL
statements to upgrade the tables in the
All checked and repaired tables are marked with the current MySQL version number. This ensures that next time you run mysql_upgrade with the same version of the server, it can tell whether there is any need to check or repair the table again.
mysql_upgrade also saves the MySQL version
number in a file named
in the data directory. This is used to quickly check whether all
tables have been checked for this release so that table-checking
can be skipped. To ignore this file and perform the check
regardless, use the
If you install MySQL from RPM packages on Linux, you must install the server and client RPMs. mysql_upgrade is included in the server RPM but requires the client RPM because the latter includes mysqlcheck. (See Section 2.5.1, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages”.)
mysql_upgrade supports the following options,
which can be specified on the command line or in the
[client] groups of an option file. Other
options are passed to mysqlcheck. For
example, it might be necessary to specify the
option. mysql_upgrade also supports the
options for processing option files described at
Section 188.8.131.52, “Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handling”.
Display a short help message and exit.
The path to the MySQL installation directory. This option is accepted for backward compatibility but ignored.
The path to the data directory. This option is accepted for backward compatibility but ignored.
Print some debugging information when the program exits.
Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits.
The client-side authentication plugin to use. See Section 6.3.7, “Pluggable Authentication”.
This option was added in MySQL 5.6.2.
The directory in which to look for plugins. It may be
necessary to specify this option if the
is used to specify an authentication plugin but
mysql_upgrade does not find it. See
Section 6.3.7, “Pluggable Authentication”.
This option was added in MySQL 5.6.2.
The path name of the directory to use for creating temporary files.
Upgrade only the system tables, do not upgrade data.
The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server.
The default user name is
Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.
Check the version of the server to which
mysql_upgrade is connecting to verify
that it is the same as the version for which
mysql_upgrade was built. If not,
mysql_upgrade exits. This option is
enabled by default; to disable the check, use
--skip-version-check. This option was added
in MySQL 5.6.12.
Cause binary logging to be enabled while
mysql_upgrade runs. In MySQL 5.6.6 and
earlier, this was the default behavior. (To disable binary
logging during the upgrade, it was necessary to use the
inverse of this option, by starting the program with
--skip-write-binlog.) Beginning with MySQL
5.6.7, binary logging by mysql_upgrade is
disabled by default (Bug #14221043), and you must invoke the
program explicitly with
you want its actions to be written to the binary log. (Also
beginning with MySQL 5.6.7, the
--skip-write-binlog option effectively does
Running mysql_upgrade is not recommended
with a MySQL Server that is running with global transaction
identifiers enabled (Bug #13833710). This is because
enabling GTIDs means that any updates which
mysql_upgrade might need to perform on
system tables using a nontransactional storage engine such
MyISAM to fail. See
Section 184.108.40.206, “Restrictions on Replication with GTIDs”, for more