mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL Server. mysql_upgrade also upgrades the system tables so that you can take advantage of new privileges or capabilities that might have been added.
If mysql_upgrade finds that a table has a possible incompatibility, it performs a table check and, if problems are found, attempts a table repair. If the table cannot be repaired, see Section 2.11.4, “Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes” for manual table repair strategies.
You should execute mysql_upgrade each time you upgrade MySQL.
If you install MySQL from RPM packages on Linux, you must install the server and client RPMs. mysql_upgrade is included in the server RPM but requires the client RPM because the latter includes mysqlcheck. (See Section 2.5.1, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages”.)
On Windows Server 2008, Vista, and newer, you must run mysql_upgrade with administrator privileges. You can do this by running a Command Prompt as Administrator and running the command. Failure to do so may result in the upgrade failing to execute correctly.
You should always back up your current MySQL installation before performing an upgrade. See Section 7.2, “Database Backup Methods”.
Some upgrade incompatibilities may require special handling before you upgrade your MySQL installation and run mysql_upgrade. See Section 2.11.1, “Upgrading MySQL”, for instructions on determining whether any such incompatibilities apply to your installation and how to handle them.
To use mysql_upgrade, make sure that the server is running. Then invoke it like this:
After running mysql_upgrade, stop the server and restart it so that any changes made to the system tables take effect.
If you have multiple MySQL server instances running, invoke mysql_upgrade with connection parameters appropriate for connecting to the desired server. For example, with servers running on the local host on parts 3306 through 3308, upgrade each of them by connecting to the appropriate port:
mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3306 [shell>
mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3307 [shell>
mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3308 [
For local host connections on Unix, the
--protocol=tcp option forces a connection using
TCP/IP rather than the Unix socket file.
mysql_upgrade executes the following commands to check and repair tables and to upgrade the system tables:
mysqlcheck --no-defaults --all-databases --fix-db-names --fix-table-names mysqlcheck --no-defaults --check-upgrade --all-databases --auto-repair mysql < fix_priv_tables
Notes about the preceding commands:
Because mysql_upgrade invokes
mysqlcheck with the
it processes all tables in all databases, which might take a
long time to complete. Each table is locked and therefore
unavailable to other sessions while it is being processed.
Check and repair operations can be time-consuming,
particularly for large tables.
fix_priv_tables represents a
script generated internally by
mysql_upgrade that contains SQL
statements to upgrade the tables in the
All checked and repaired tables are marked with the current MySQL version number. This ensures that next time you run mysql_upgrade with the same version of the server, it can tell whether there is any need to check or repair the table again.
mysql_upgrade also saves the MySQL version
number in a file named
in the data directory. This is used to quickly check whether all
tables have been checked for this release so that table-checking
can be skipped. To ignore this file and perform the check
regardless, use the
mysql_upgrade supports the following options,
which can be specified on the command line or in the
[client] groups of an option file.
Unrecognized options are passed to
mysqlcheck. For information about option
files, see Section 4.2.6, “Using Option Files”.
|--character-sets-dir=dir_name||Directory where character sets are installed|
|--compress||Compress all information sent between client and server|
|--debug[=#]||Write a debugging log|
|--debug-check||Print debugging information when program exits|
|--debug-info||Print debugging information, memory, and CPU statistics when program exits|
|--default-auth=plugin||Authentication plugin to use||5.5.10|
|--default-character-set=name||Specify default character set|
|--defaults-extra-file=file_name||Read option file in addition to usual option files|
|--defaults-file=file_name||Read only named option file|
|--defaults-group-suffix=str||Option group suffix value|
|--force||Force execution even if mysql_upgrade has already been executed for current version of MySQL|
|--help||Display help message and exit|
|--host=name||Connect to MySQL server on given host|
|--no-defaults||Read no option files|
|--password[=name]||Password to use when connecting to server|
|--pipe||On Windows, connect to server using named pipe|
|--plugin-dir=dir_name||Directory where plugins are installed||5.5.10|
|--port=#||TCP/IP port number to use for connection|
|--protocol=name||Connection protocol to use|
|--shared-memory-base-name=name||The name of shared memory to use for shared-memory connections|
|--socket=file_name||For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use|
|--ssl||Enable SSL for connection|
|--ssl-ca=file_name||Path of file that contains list of trusted SSL CAs|
|--ssl-capath=dir_name||Path of directory that contains trusted SSL CA certificates in PEM format|
|--ssl-cert=file_name||Path of file that contains X509 certificate in PEM format|
|--ssl-cipher=cipher_list||List of permitted ciphers to use for SSL encryption|
|--ssl-key=file_name||Path of file that contains X509 key in PEM format|
|--ssl-verify-server-cert||Verify server Common Name value in its certificate against host name used when connecting to server|
|--tmpdir=dir_name||Directory for temporary files|
|--upgrade-system-tables||Update only system tables, not data|
|--user=name||MySQL user name to use when connecting to server|
|--version-check||Check for proper server version||5.5.32|
|--write-binlog||Write all statements to binary log|
Display a short help message and exit.
The path to the MySQL installation directory. This option is accepted for backward compatibility but ignored. It is removed in MySQL 5.7.
The directory where character sets are installed. See Section 10.5, “Character Set Configuration”.
Compress all information sent between the client and the server if both support compression.
The path to the data directory. This option is accepted for backward compatibility but ignored. It is removed in MySQL 5.7.
Write a debugging log. A typical
debug_options string is
The default is
Print some debugging information when the program exits.
Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits.
The client-side authentication plugin to use. See Section 6.3.6, “Pluggable Authentication”.
This option was added in MySQL 5.5.10.
charset_name as the default
character set. See Section 10.5, “Character Set Configuration”.
Read this option file after the global option file but (on
Unix) before the user option file. If the file does not
exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. Before
file_name must be
the full path name to the file. As of MySQL 5.5.8, the name
is interpreted relative to the current directory if given as
a relative path name.
Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist
or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. Before MySQL
file_name must be the full
path name to the file. As of MySQL 5.5.8, the name is
interpreted relative to the current directory if given as a
relative path name.
Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with
the usual names and a suffix of
str. For example,
mysql_upgrade normally reads the
[mysql_upgrade] groups. If the
option is given, mysql_upgrade also reads
mysql_upgrade_info file and
force execution even if mysql_upgrade has
already been executed for the current version of MySQL.
Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.
Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due
to reading unknown options from an option file,
--no-defaults can be
used to prevent them from being read.
The password to use when connecting to the server. If you
use the short option form (
cannot have a space between the option
and the password. If you omit the
password value following the
-p option on the command line,
mysql_upgrade prompts for one.
Specifying a password on the command line should be considered insecure. See Section 188.8.131.52, “End-User Guidelines for Password Security”. You can use an option file to avoid giving the password on the command line.
On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.
The directory in which to look for plugins. It may be
necessary to specify this option if the
is used to specify an authentication plugin but
mysql_upgrade does not find it. See
Section 6.3.6, “Pluggable Authentication”.
This option was added in MySQL 5.5.10.
The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.
Print the program name and all options that it gets from option files.
The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see Section 4.2.2, “Connecting to the MySQL Server”.
On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections
made using shared memory to a local server. The default
MYSQL. The shared-memory name is
The server must be started with the
--shared-memory option to
enable shared-memory connections.
For connections to
localhost, the Unix
socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named
pipe to use.
The path name of the directory to use for creating temporary files.
Upgrade only the system tables, do not upgrade data.
The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server.
The default user name is
Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.
Check the version of the server to which
mysql_upgrade is connecting to verify
that it is the same as the version for which
mysql_upgrade was built. If not,
mysql_upgrade exits. This option is
enabled by default; to disable the check, use
--skip-version-check. This option was added
in MySQL 5.5.32.
Cause binary logging to be enabled while
mysql_upgrade runs. This is the default
behavior; to disable binary logging during the upgrade, use
the inverse of this option (that is, start the program with