Another method of verifying the integrity and authenticity of a package is to use cryptographic signatures. This is more reliable than using MD5 checksums, but requires more work.
We sign MySQL downloadable packages with GnuPG (GNU Privacy Guard). GnuPG is an Open Source alternative to the well-known Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) by Phil Zimmermann. See http://www.gnupg.org/ for more information about GnuPG and how to obtain and install it on your system. Most Linux distributions ship with GnuPG installed by default. For more information about GnuPG, see http://www.openpgp.org/.
To verify the signature for a specific package, you first need
to obtain a copy of our public GPG build key, which you can
download from http://pgp.mit.edu/. The key that
you want to obtain is named
you can cut and paste the key directly from the following text:
-----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK----- Version: PGP Universal 2.9.1 (Build 347) mQGiBD4+owwRBAC14GIfUfCyEDSIePvEW3SAFUdJBtoQHH/nJKZyQT7h9bPlUWC3 RODjQReyCITRrdwyrKUGku2FmeVGwn2u2WmDMNABLnpprWPkBdCk96+OmSLN9brZ fw2vOUgCmYv2hW0hyDHuvYlQA/BThQoADgj8AW6/0Lo7V1W9/8VuHP0gQwCgvzV3 BqOxRznNCRCRxAuAuVztHRcEAJooQK1+iSiunZMYD1WufeXfshc57S/+yeJkegNW hxwR9pRWVArNYJdDRT+rf2RUe3vpquKNQU/hnEIUHJRQqYHo8gTxvxXNQc7fJYLV K2HtkrPbP72vwsEKMYhhr0eKCbtLGfls9krjJ6sBgACyP/Vb7hiPwxh6rDZ7ITnE kYpXBACmWpP8NJTkamEnPCia2ZoOHODANwpUkP43I7jsDmgtobZX9qnrAXw+uNDI QJEXM6FSbi0LLtZciNlYsafwAPEOMDKpMqAK6IyisNtPvaLd8lH0bPAnWqcyefep rv0sxxqUEMcM3o7wwgfN83POkDasDbs3pjwPhxvhz6//62zQJ7Q2TXlTUUwgUmVs ZWFzZSBFbmdpbmVlcmluZyA8bXlzcWwtYnVpbGRAb3NzLm9yYWNsZS5jb20+iGYE ExECACYCGyMGCwkIBwMCBBUCCAMEFgIDAQIeAQIXgAUCTnc+KgUJE/sCFQAKCRCM cY07UHLh9SbMAJ4l1+qBz2BZNSGCZwwA6YbhGPC7FwCgp8z5TzIw4YQuL5NGJ/sy 0oSazqmJASIEEAECAAwFAk53QS4FAwASdQAACgkQlxC4m8pXrXwJ8Qf/be/UO9mq foc2sMyhwMpN4/fdBWwfLkA12FXQDOQMvwH9HsmEjnfUgYKXschZRi+DuHXe1P7l 8G2aQLubhBsQf9ejKvRFTzuWMQkdIq+6Koulxv6ofkCcv3d1xtO2W7nb5yxcpVBP rRfGFGebJvZa58DymCNgyGtAU6AOz4veavNmI2+GIDQsY66+tYDvZ+CxwzdYu+HD V9HmrJfc6deM0mnBn7SRjqzxJPgoTQhihTav6q/R5/2p5NvQ/H84OgS6GjosfGc2 duUDzCP/kheMRKfzuyKCOHQPtJuIj8++gfpHtEU7IDUX1So3c9n0PdpeBvclsDbp RnCNxQWU4mBot7kCDQQ+PqMdEAgA7+GJfxbMdY4wslPnjH9rF4N2qfWsEN/lxaZo JYc3a6M02WCnHl6ahT2/tBK2w1QI4YFteR47gCvtgb6O1JHffOo2HfLmRDRiRjd1 DTCHqeyX7CHhcghj/dNRlW2Z0l5QFEcmV9U0Vhp3aFfWC4Ujfs3LU+hkAWzE7zaD 5cH9J7yv/6xuZVw411x0h4UqsTcWMu0iM1BzELqX1DY7LwoPEb/O9Rkbf4fmLe11 EzIaCa4PqARXQZc4dhSinMt6K3X4BrRsKTfozBu74F47D8Ilbf5vSYHbuE5p/1oI Dznkg/p8kW+3FxuWrycciqFTcNz215yyX39LXFnlLzKUb/F5GwADBQf+Lwqqa8CG rRfsOAJxim63CHfty5mUc5rUSnTslGYEIOCR1BeQauyPZbPDsDD9MZ1ZaSafanFv wFG6Llx9xkU7tzq+vKLoWkm4u5xf3vn55VjnSd1aQ9eQnUcXiL4cnBGoTbOWI39E cyzgslzBdC++MPjcQTcA7p6JUVsP6oAB3FQWg54tuUo0Ec8bsM8b3Ev42LmuQT5N dKHGwHsXTPtl0klk4bQk4OajHsiy1BMahpT27jWjJlMiJc+IWJ0mghkKHt926s/y mfdf5HkdQ1cyvsz5tryVI3Fx78XeSYfQvuuwqp2H139pXGEkg0n6KdUOetdZWhe7 0YGNPw1yjWJT1IhUBBgRAgAMBQJOdz3tBQkT+wG4ABIHZUdQRwABAQkQjHGNO1By 4fUUmwCbBYr2+bBEn/L2BOcnw9Z/QFWuhRMAoKVgCFm5fadQ3Afi+UQlAcOphrnJ =Eto8 -----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
To import the build key into your personal public GPG keyring,
use gpg --import. For example, if you have
saved the key in a file named
mysql_pubkey.asc, the import command looks
gpg --import mysql_pubkey.ascgpg: key 5072E1F5: public key "MySQL Release Engineering <firstname.lastname@example.org>" imported gpg: Total number processed: 1 gpg: imported: 1 gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found
You can also download the key from the public keyserver using
the public key id,
shell> gpg --recv-keys 5072E1F5 gpg: requesting key 5072E1F5 from hkp server keys.gnupg.net gpg: key 5072E1F5: "MySQL Release Engineering <email@example.com>" 1 new user ID gpg: key 5072E1F5: "MySQL Release Engineering <firstname.lastname@example.org>" 53 new signatures gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found gpg: Total number processed: 1 gpg: new user IDs: 1 gpg: new signatures: 53
If you want to import the key into your RPM configuration to validate RPM install packages, you should be able to import the key directly:
rpm --import mysql_pubkey.asc
If you experience problems or require RPM specific information,
see Section 188.8.131.52, “Signature Checking Using
After you have downloaded and imported the public build key,
download your desired MySQL package and the corresponding
signature, which also is available from the download page. The
signature file has the same name as the distribution file with
.asc extension, as shown by the examples
in the following table.
Table 2.1. MySQL Package and Signature Files for Source files
|File Type||File Name|
Make sure that both files are stored in the same directory and then run the following command to verify the signature for the distribution file:
If the downloaded package is valid, you will see a "Good signature" similar to:
gpg --verify mysql-standard-5.1.74-linux-i686.tar.gz.ascgpg: Signature made Tue 01 Feb 2011 02:38:30 AM CST using DSA key ID 5072E1F5 gpg: Good signature from "MySQL Release Engineering <email@example.com>"
Good signature message indicates that the
file signature is valid, when compared to the signature listed
on our site. But you might also see warnings, like so:
gpg --verify mysql-standard-5.1.74-linux-i686.tar.gz.ascgpg: Signature made Wed 23 Jan 2013 02:25:45 AM PST using DSA key ID 5072E1F5 gpg: checking the trustdb gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found gpg: Good signature from "MySQL Release Engineering <firstname.lastname@example.org>" gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature! gpg: There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner. Primary key fingerprint: A4A9 4068 76FC BD3C 4567 70C8 8C71 8D3B 5072 E1F5
That is normal, as they depend on your setup and configuration. Here are explanations for these warnings:
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found: This means that the specific key is not "ultimately trusted" by you or your web of trust, which is okay for the purposes of verifying file signatures.
WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature! There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.: This refers to your level of trust in your belief that you possess our real public key. This is a personal decision. Ideally, a MySQL developer would hand you the key in person, but more commonly, you downloaded it. Was the download tampered with? Probably not, but this decision is up to you. Setting up a web of trust is one method for trusting them.
See the GPG documentation for more information on how to work with public keys.