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MySQL 8.3 Reference Manual  /  ...  /  mysql_secure_installation — Improve MySQL Installation Security

6.4.2 mysql_secure_installation — Improve MySQL Installation Security

This program enables you to improve the security of your MySQL installation in the following ways:

  • You can set a password for root accounts.

  • You can remove root accounts that are accessible from outside the local host.

  • You can remove anonymous-user accounts.

  • You can remove the test database (which by default can be accessed by all users, even anonymous users), and privileges that permit anyone to access databases with names that start with test_.

mysql_secure_installation helps you implement security recommendations similar to those described at Section 2.9.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Account”.

Normal usage is to connect to the local MySQL server; invoke mysql_secure_installation without arguments:

mysql_secure_installation

When executed, mysql_secure_installation prompts you to determine which actions to perform.

The validate_password component can be used for password strength checking. If the plugin is not installed, mysql_secure_installation prompts the user whether to install it. Any passwords entered later are checked using the plugin if it is enabled.

Most of the usual MySQL client options such as --host and --port can be used on the command line and in option files. For example, to connect to the local server over IPv6 using port 3307, use this command:

mysql_secure_installation --host=::1 --port=3307

mysql_secure_installation supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysql_secure_installation] and [client] groups of an option file. For information about option files used by MySQL programs, see Section 6.2.2.2, “Using Option Files”.

Table 6.9 mysql_secure_installation Options

Option Name Description
--defaults-extra-file Read named option file in addition to usual option files
--defaults-file Read only named option file
--defaults-group-suffix Option group suffix value
--help Display help message and exit
--host Host on which MySQL server is located
--no-defaults Read no option files
--password Accepted but always ignored. Whenever mysql_secure_installation is invoked, the user is prompted for a password, regardless
--port TCP/IP port number for connection
--print-defaults Print default options
--protocol Transport protocol to use
--socket Unix socket file or Windows named pipe to use
--ssl-ca File that contains list of trusted SSL Certificate Authorities
--ssl-capath Directory that contains trusted SSL Certificate Authority certificate files
--ssl-cert File that contains X.509 certificate
--ssl-cipher Permissible ciphers for connection encryption
--ssl-crl File that contains certificate revocation lists
--ssl-crlpath Directory that contains certificate revocation-list files
--ssl-fips-mode Whether to enable FIPS mode on client side
--ssl-key File that contains X.509 key
--ssl-mode Desired security state of connection to server
--ssl-session-data File that contains SSL session data
--ssl-session-data-continue-on-failed-reuse Whether to establish connections if session reuse fails
--tls-ciphersuites Permissible TLSv1.3 ciphersuites for encrypted connections
--tls-sni-servername Server name supplied by the client
--tls-version Permissible TLS protocols for encrypted connections
--use-default Execute with no user interactivity
--user MySQL user name to use when connecting to server

  • --help, -?

    Command-Line Format --help

    Display a help message and exit.

  • --defaults-extra-file=file_name

    Command-Line Format --defaults-extra-file=file_name
    Type File name

    Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix) before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. If file_name is not an absolute path name, it is interpreted relative to the current directory.

    For additional information about this and other option-file options, see Section 6.2.2.3, “Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handling”.

  • --defaults-file=file_name

    Command-Line Format --defaults-file=file_name
    Type File name

    Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. If file_name is not an absolute path name, it is interpreted relative to the current directory.

    For additional information about this and other option-file options, see Section 6.2.2.3, “Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handling”.

  • --defaults-group-suffix=str

    Command-Line Format --defaults-group-suffix=str
    Type String

    Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of str. For example, mysql_secure_installation normally reads the [client] and [mysql_secure_installation] groups. If this option is given as --defaults-group-suffix=_other, mysql_secure_installation also reads the [client_other] and [mysql_secure_installation_other] groups.

    For additional information about this and other option-file options, see Section 6.2.2.3, “Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handling”.

  • --host=host_name, -h host_name

    Command-Line Format --host

    Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.

  • --no-defaults

    Command-Line Format --no-defaults

    Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be used to prevent them from being read.

    The exception is that the .mylogin.cnf file is read in all cases, if it exists. This permits passwords to be specified in a safer way than on the command line even when --no-defaults is used. To create .mylogin.cnf, use the mysql_config_editor utility. See Section 6.6.7, “mysql_config_editor — MySQL Configuration Utility”.

    For additional information about this and other option-file options, see Section 6.2.2.3, “Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handling”.

  • --password=password, -p password

    Command-Line Format --password=password
    Type String
    Default Value [none]

    This option is accepted but ignored. Whether or not this option is used, mysql_secure_installation always prompts the user for a password.

  • --port=port_num, -P port_num

    Command-Line Format --port=port_num
    Type Numeric
    Default Value 3306

    For TCP/IP connections, the port number to use.

  • --print-defaults

    Command-Line Format --print-defaults

    Print the program name and all options that it gets from option files.

    For additional information about this and other option-file options, see Section 6.2.2.3, “Command-Line Options that Affect Option-File Handling”.

  • --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

    Command-Line Format --protocol=type
    Type String
    Default Value [see text]
    Valid Values

    TCP

    SOCKET

    PIPE

    MEMORY

    The transport protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other connection parameters normally result in use of a protocol other than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see Section 6.2.7, “Connection Transport Protocols”.

  • --socket=path, -S path

    Command-Line Format --socket={file_name|pipe_name}
    Type String

    For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

    On Windows, this option applies only if the server was started with the named_pipe system variable enabled to support named-pipe connections. In addition, the connection must be a member of the Windows group specified by the named_pipe_full_access_group system variable.

  • --ssl*

    Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the server using encryption and indicate where to find SSL keys and certificates. See Command Options for Encrypted Connections.

  • --ssl-fips-mode={OFF|ON|STRICT}

    Command-Line Format --ssl-fips-mode={OFF|ON|STRICT}
    Deprecated Yes
    Type Enumeration
    Default Value OFF
    Valid Values

    OFF

    ON

    STRICT

    Controls whether to enable FIPS mode on the client side. The --ssl-fips-mode option differs from other --ssl-xxx options in that it is not used to establish encrypted connections, but rather to affect which cryptographic operations to permit. See Section 8.8, “FIPS Support”.

    These --ssl-fips-mode values are permitted:

    • OFF: Disable FIPS mode.

    • ON: Enable FIPS mode.

    • STRICT: Enable strict FIPS mode.

    Note

    If the OpenSSL FIPS Object Module is not available, the only permitted value for --ssl-fips-mode is OFF. In this case, setting --ssl-fips-mode to ON or STRICT causes the client to produce a warning at startup and to operate in non-FIPS mode.

    This option is deprecated. Expect it to be removed in a future version of MySQL.

  • --tls-ciphersuites=ciphersuite_list

    Command-Line Format --tls-ciphersuites=ciphersuite_list
    Type String

    The permissible ciphersuites for encrypted connections that use TLSv1.3. The value is a list of one or more colon-separated ciphersuite names. The ciphersuites that can be named for this option depend on the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For details, see Section 8.3.2, “Encrypted Connection TLS Protocols and Ciphers”.

  • --tls-sni-servername=server_name

    Command-Line Format --tls-sni-servername=server_name
    Type String

    When specified, the name is passed to the libmysqlclient C API library using the MYSQL_OPT_TLS_SNI_SERVERNAME option of mysql_options(). The server name is not case-sensitive. To show which server name the client specified for the current session, if any, check the Tls_sni_server_name status variable.

    Server Name Indication (SNI) is an extension to the TLS protocol (OpenSSL must be compiled using TLS extensions for this option to function). The MySQL implementation of SNI represents the client-side only.

  • --tls-version=protocol_list

    Command-Line Format --tls-version=protocol_list
    Type String
    Default Value

    TLSv1,TLSv1.1,TLSv1.2,TLSv1.3 (OpenSSL 1.1.1 or higher)

    TLSv1,TLSv1.1,TLSv1.2 (otherwise)

    The permissible TLS protocols for encrypted connections. The value is a list of one or more comma-separated protocol names. The protocols that can be named for this option depend on the SSL library used to compile MySQL. For details, see Section 8.3.2, “Encrypted Connection TLS Protocols and Ciphers”.

  • --use-default

    Command-Line Format --use-default
    Type Boolean

    Execute noninteractively. This option can be used for unattended installation operations.

  • --user=user_name, -u user_name

    Command-Line Format --user=user_name
    Type String

    The user name of the MySQL account to use for connecting to the server.