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MySQL 5.5 Reference Manual  /  ...  /  ndb_restore — Restore an NDB Cluster Backup

18.4.21 ndb_restore — Restore an NDB Cluster Backup

The cluster restoration program is implemented as a separate command-line utility ndb_restore, which can normally be found in the MySQL bin directory. This program reads the files created as a result of the backup and inserts the stored information into the database.

ndb_restore must be executed once for each of the backup files that were created by the START BACKUP command used to create the backup (see Section 18.5.3.2, “Using The NDB Cluster Management Client to Create a Backup”). This is equal to the number of data nodes in the cluster at the time that the backup was created.

Note

Before using ndb_restore, it is recommended that the cluster be running in single user mode, unless you are restoring multiple data nodes in parallel. See Section 18.5.8, “NDB Cluster Single User Mode”, for more information.

The following table includes options that are specific to the NDB Cluster native backup restoration program ndb_restore. Additional descriptions follow the table. For options common to most NDB Cluster programs (including ndb_restore), see Section 18.4.27, “Options Common to NDB Cluster Programs — Options Common to NDB Cluster Programs”.

Table 18.85 This table describes command-line options for the ndb_restore program

Format Description Added or Removed

--append

Append data to a tab-delimited file

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--backup_path=dir_name

Path to backup files directory

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--backupid=#,

-b

Restore from the backup with the given ID

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--connect,

-c

Alias for --connectstring.

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--disable-indexes

Causes indexes from a backup to be ignored; may decrease time needed to restore data.

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--dont_ignore_systab_0,

-f

Do not ignore system table during restore. Experimental only; not for production use

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--exclude-databases=db-list

List of one or more databases to exclude (includes those not named)

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--exclude-intermediate-sql-tables[=TRUE|FALSE]

If TRUE (the default), do not restore any intermediate tables (having names prefixed with '#sql-') that were left over from copying ALTER TABLE operations.

ADDED: NDB 7.2.17

--exclude-missing-columns

Causes columns from the backup version of a table that are missing from the version of the table in the database to be ignored.

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--exclude-missing-tables

Causes tables from the backup that are missing from the database to be ignored.

ADDED: NDB 7.2.18

--exclude-tables=table-list

List of one or more tables to exclude (includes those in the same database that are not named); each table reference must include the database name

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--fields-enclosed-by=char

Fields are enclosed with the indicated character

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--fields-optionally-enclosed-by

Fields are optionally enclosed with the indicated character

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--fields-terminated-by=char

Fields are terminated by the indicated character

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--hex

Print binary types in hexadecimal format

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--include-databases=db-list

List of one or more databases to restore (excludes those not named)

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--include-tables=table-list

List of one or more tables to restore (excludes those in same database that are not named); each table reference must include the database name

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--lines-terminated-by=char

Lines are terminated by the indicated character

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--lossy-conversions,

-L

Allow lossy conversions of column values (type demotions or changes in sign) when restoring data from backup

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--no-binlog

If a mysqld is connected and using binary logging, do not log the restored data

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--no-restore-disk-objects,

-d

Do not restore objects relating to Disk Data

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--no-upgrade,

-u

Do not upgrade array type for varsize attributes which do not already resize VAR data, and do not change column attributes

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--ndb-nodegroup-map=map,

-z

Nodegroup map for NDBCLUSTER storage engine. Syntax: list of (source_nodegroup, destination_nodegroup)

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--nodeid=#,

-n

ID of node where backup was taken

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--parallelism=#,

-p

Number of parallel transactions to use while restoring data

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--preserve-trailing-spaces,

-P

Allow preservation of trailing spaces (including padding) when promoting fixed-width string types to variable-width types

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--print

Print metadata, data and log to stdout (equivalent to --print_meta --print_data --print_log)

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--print_data

Print data to stdout

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--print_log

Print to stdout

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--print_meta

Print metadata to stdout

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--progress-frequency=#

Print status of restoration each given number of seconds

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--promote-attributes,

-A

Allow attributes to be promoted when restoring data from backup

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--rebuild-indexes

Causes multi-threaded rebuilding of ordered indexes found in the backup. Number of threads used is determined by setting BuildIndexThreads parameter.

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--restore_data,

-r

Restore table data and logs into NDB Cluster using the NDB API

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--restore_epoch,

-e

Restore epoch info into the status table. Convenient on a MySQL Cluster replication slave for starting replication. The row in mysql.ndb_apply_status with id 0 will be updated/inserted.

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--restore_meta,

-m

Restore metadata to NDB Cluster using the NDB API

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--restore-privilege-tables

Restore MySQL privilege tables that were previously moved to NDB.

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--rewrite-database=olddb,newdb

Restores to a database with a different name than the original

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--skip-broken-objects

Causes missing blob tables in the backup file to be ignored.

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--skip-table-check,

-s

Skip table structure check during restoring of data

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--skip-unknown-objects

Causes schema objects not recognized by ndb_restore to be ignored when restoring a backup made from a newer MySQL Cluster version to an older version.

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--tab=dir_name,

-T dir_name

Creates a tab-separated .txt file for each table in the given path

All MySQL 5.5 based releases

--verbose=#

Level of verbosity in output

All MySQL 5.5 based releases


Typical options for this utility are shown here:

ndb_restore [-c connection_string] -n node_id -b backup_id \
      [-m] -r --backup_path=/path/to/backup/files

Normally, when restoring from an NDB Cluster backup, ndb_restore requires at a minimum the --nodeid (short form: -n), --backupid (short form: -b), and --backup_path options. In addition, when ndb_restore is used to restore any tables containing unique indexes, you must include --disable-indexes or --rebuild-indexes. (Bug #57782, Bug #11764893)

The -c option is used to specify a connection string which tells ndb_restore where to locate the cluster management server (see Section 18.3.3.3, “NDB Cluster Connection Strings”). If this option is not used, then ndb_restore attempts to connect to a management server on localhost:1186. This utility acts as a cluster API node, and so requires a free connection slot to connect to the cluster management server. This means that there must be at least one [api] or [mysqld] section that can be used by it in the cluster config.ini file. It is a good idea to keep at least one empty [api] or [mysqld] section in config.ini that is not being used for a MySQL server or other application for this reason (see Section 18.3.3.7, “Defining SQL and Other API Nodes in an NDB Cluster”).

You can verify that ndb_restore is connected to the cluster by using the SHOW command in the ndb_mgm management client. You can also accomplish this from a system shell, as shown here:

shell> ndb_mgm -e "SHOW"

More detailed information about all options used by ndb_restore can be found in the following list:

  • --append

    Command-Line Format--append

    When used with the --tab and --print_data options, this causes the data to be appended to any existing files having the same names.

  • --backup_path=dir_name

    Command-Line Format--backup-path=dir_name
    Permitted ValuesTypedirectory name
    Default./

    The path to the backup directory is required; this is supplied to ndb_restore using the --backup_path option, and must include the subdirectory corresponding to the ID backup of the backup to be restored. For example, if the data node's DataDir is /var/lib/mysql-cluster, then the backup directory is /var/lib/mysql-cluster/BACKUP, and the backup files for the backup with the ID 3 can be found in /var/lib/mysql-cluster/BACKUP/BACKUP-3. The path may be absolute or relative to the directory in which the ndb_restore executable is located, and may be optionally prefixed with backup_path=.

    It is possible to restore a backup to a database with a different configuration than it was created from. For example, suppose that a backup with backup ID 12, created in a cluster with two database nodes having the node IDs 2 and 3, is to be restored to a cluster with four nodes. Then ndb_restore must be run twice—once for each database node in the cluster where the backup was taken. However, ndb_restore cannot always restore backups made from a cluster running one version of MySQL to a cluster running a different MySQL version. See Section 18.2.7, “Upgrading and Downgrading NDB Cluster”, for more information.

    Important

    It is not possible to restore a backup made from a newer version of NDB Cluster using an older version of ndb_restore. You can restore a backup made from a newer version of MySQL to an older cluster, but you must use a copy of ndb_restore from the newer NDB Cluster version to do so.

    For example, to restore a cluster backup taken from a cluster running NDB 7.2.5 to a cluster running NDB 7.1.21, you must use the ndb_restore that comes with the NDB 7.2.5 distribution.

    For more rapid restoration, the data may be restored in parallel, provided that there is a sufficient number of cluster connections available. That is, when restoring to multiple nodes in parallel, you must have an [api] or [mysqld] section in the cluster config.ini file available for each concurrent ndb_restore process. However, the data files must always be applied before the logs.

  • --backupid=#, -b

    Command-Line Format--backupid=#
    Permitted ValuesTypenumeric
    Defaultnone

    This option is used to specify the ID or sequence number of the backup, and is the same number shown by the management client in the Backup backup_id completed message displayed upon completion of a backup. (See Section 18.5.3.2, “Using The NDB Cluster Management Client to Create a Backup”.)

    Important

    When restoring cluster backups, you must be sure to restore all data nodes from backups having the same backup ID. Using files from different backups will at best result in restoring the cluster to an inconsistent state, and may fail altogether.

  • --connect, -c

    Command-Line Format--connect
    Permitted ValuesTypestring
    Defaultlocalhost:1186

    Alias for --ndb-connectstring.

  • --disable-indexes

    Command-Line Format--disable-indexes

    Disable restoration of indexes during restoration of the data from a native NDB backup. Afterwards, you can restore indexes for all tables at once with multi-threaded building of indexes using --rebuild-indexes, which should be faster than rebuilding indexes concurrently for very large tables.

  • --dont_ignore_systab_0, -f

    Command-Line Format--dont-ignore-systab-0

    Normally, when restoring table data and metadata, ndb_restore ignores the copy of the NDB system table that is present in the backup. --dont_ignore_systab_0 causes the system table to be restored. This option is intended for experimental and development use only, and is not recommended in a production environment.

  • --exclude-databases=db-list

    Command-Line Format--exclude-databases=db-list
    Permitted ValuesTypestring
    Default

    Comma-delimited list of one or more databases which should not be restored.

    This option is often used in combination with --exclude-tables; see that option's description for further information and examples.

  • --exclude-intermediate-sql-tables[=TRUE|FALSE]

    Introduced5.5.37-ndb-7.2.17
    Command-Line Format--exclude-intermediate-sql-tables[=TRUE|FALSE]
    Permitted ValuesTypeboolean
    DefaultTRUE

    When performing copying ALTER TABLE operations, mysqld creates intermediate tables (whose names are prefixed with #sql-). When TRUE, the --exclude-intermediate-sql-tables option keeps ndb_restore from restoring such tables that may have been left over from these operations. This option is TRUE by default.

    This option was introduced in NDB 7.2.17. (Bug #17882305)

  • --exclude-missing-columns

    Command-Line Format--exclude-missing-columns

    It is possible to restore only selected table columns using this option, which causes ndb_restore to ignore any columns missing from tables being restored as compared to the versions of those tables found in the backup. This option applies to all tables being restored. If you wish to apply this option only to selected tables or databases, you can use it in combination with one or more of the --include-* or --exclude-* options described elsewhere in this section to do so, then restore data to the remaining tables using a complementary set of these options.

  • --exclude-missing-tables

    Introduced5.5.40-ndb-7.2.18
    Command-Line Format--exclude-missing-tables

    It is possible to restore only selected tables using this option, which causes ndb_restore to ignore any tables from the backup that are not found in the target database.

    This option was introduced in NDB 7.2.18.

  • --exclude-tables=table-list

    Command-Line Format--exclude-tables=table-list
    Permitted ValuesTypestring
    Default

    List of one or more tables to exclude; each table reference must include the database name. Often used together with --exclude-databases.

    When --exclude-databases or --exclude-tables is used, only those databases or tables named by the option are excluded; all other databases and tables are restored by ndb_restore.

    This table shows several invocations of ndb_restore usng --exclude-* options (other options possibly required have been omitted for clarity), and the effects these options have on restoring from an NDB Cluster backup:

    Option UsedResult
    --exclude-databases=db1All tables in all databases except db1 are restored; no tables in db1 are restored
    --exclude-databases=db1,db2 (or --exclude-databases=db1 --exclude-databases=db2)All tables in all databases except db1 and db2 are restored; no tables in db1 or db2 are restored
    --exclude-tables=db1.t1All tables except t1 in database db1 are restored; all other tables in db1 are restored; all tables in all other databases are restored
    --exclude-tables=db1.t2,db2.t1 (or --exclude-tables=db1.t2 --exclude-tables=db2.t1)All tables in database db1 except for t2 and all tables in database db2 except for table t1 are restored; no other tables in db1 or db2 are restored; all tables in all other databases are restored

    You can use these two options together. For example, the following causes all tables in all databases except for databases db1 and db2, and tables t1 and t2 in database db3, to be restored:

    shell> ndb_restore [...] --exclude-databases=db1,db2 --exclude-tables=db3.t1,db3.t2

    (Again, we have omitted other possibly necessary options in the interest of clarity and brevity from the example just shown.)

    You can use --include-* and --exclude-* options together, subject to the following rules:

    • The actions of all --include-* and --exclude-* options are cumulative.

    • All --include-* and --exclude-* options are evaluated in the order passed to ndb_restore, from right to left.

    • In the event of conflicting options, the first (rightmost) option takes precedence. In other words, the first option (going from right to left) that matches against a given database or table wins.

    For example, the following set of options causes ndb_restore to restore all tables from database db1 except db1.t1, while restoring no other tables from any other databases:

    --include-databases=db1 --exclude-tables=db1.t1

    However, reversing the order of the options just given simply causes all tables from database db1 to be restored (including db1.t1, but no tables from any other database), because the --include-databases option, being farthest to the right, is the first match against database db1 and thus takes precedence over any other option that matches db1 or any tables in db1:

    --exclude-tables=db1.t1 --include-databases=db1
  • --fields-enclosed-by=char

    Command-Line Format--fields-enclosed-by=char
    Permitted ValuesTypestring
    Default

    Each column value is enclosed by the string passed to this option (regardless of data type; see the description of --fields-optionally-enclosed-by).

  • --fields-optionally-enclosed-by

    Command-Line Format--fields-optionally-enclosed-by
    Permitted ValuesTypestring
    Default

    The string passed to this option is used to enclose column values containing character data (such as CHAR, VARCHAR, BINARY, TEXT, or ENUM).

  • --fields-terminated-by=char

    Command-Line Format--fields-terminated-by=char
    Permitted ValuesTypestring
    Default\t (tab)

    The string passed to this option is used to separate column values. The default value is a tab character (\t).

  • --hex

    Command-Line Format--hex

    If this option is used, all binary values are output in hexadecimal format.

  • --include-databases=db-list

    Command-Line Format--include-databases=db-list
    Permitted ValuesTypestring
    Default

    Comma-delimited list of one or more databases to restore. Often used together with --include-tables; see the description of that option for further information and examples.

  • --include-tables=table-list

    Command-Line Format--include-tables=table-list
    Permitted ValuesTypestring
    Default

    Comma-delimited list of tables to restore; each table reference must include the database name.

    When --include-databases or --include-tables is used, only those databases or tables named by the option are restored; all other databases and tables are excluded by ndb_restore, and are not restored.

    The following table shows several invocations of ndb_restore using --include-* options (other options possibly required have been omitted for clarity), and the effects these have on restoring from an NDB Cluster backup:

    Option UsedResult
    --include-databases=db1Only tables in database db1 are restored; all tables in all other databases are ignored
    --include-databases=db1,db2 (or --include-databases=db1 --include-databases=db2)Only tables in databases db1 and db2 are restored; all tables in all other databases are ignored
    --include-tables=db1.t1Only table t1 in database db1 is restored; no other tables in db1 or in any other database are restored
    --include-tables=db1.t2,db2.t1 (or --include-tables=db1.t2 --include-tables=db2.t1)Only the table t2 in database db1 and the table t1 in database db2 are restored; no other tables in db1, db2, or any other database are restored

    You can also use these two options together. For example, the following causes all tables in databases db1 and db2, together with the tables t1 and t2 in database db3, to be restored (and no other databases or tables):

    shell> ndb_restore [...] --include-databases=db1,db2 --include-tables=db3.t1,db3.t2

    (Again we have omitted other, possibly required, options in the example just shown.)

    It also possible to restore only selected databases, or selected tables from a single database, without any --include-* (or --exclude-*) options, using the syntax shown here:

    ndb_restore other_options db_name,[db_name[,...] | tbl_name[,tbl_name][,...]]

    In other words, you can specify either of the following to be restored:

    • All tables from one or more databases

    • One or more tables from a single database

  • --lines-terminated-by=char

    Command-Line Format--lines-terminated-by=char
    Permitted ValuesTypestring
    Default\n (linebreak)

    Specifies the string used to end each line of output. The default is a linefeed character (\n).

  • --lossy-conversions, -L

    Command-Line Format--lossy-conversions
    Permitted ValuesTypeboolean
    DefaultFALSE

    This option is intended to complement the --promote-attributes option. Using --lossy-conversions allows lossy conversions of column values (type demotions or changes in sign) when restoring data from backup. With some exceptions, the rules governing demotion are the same as for MySQL replication; see Section 17.4.1.9.2, “Replication of Columns Having Different Data Types”, for information about specific type conversions currently supported by attribute demotion.

    ndb_restore reports any truncation of data that it performs during lossy conversions once per attribute and column.

  • --no-binlog

    Command-Line Format--no-binlog

    This option prevents any connected SQL nodes from writing data restored by ndb_restore to their binary logs.

  • --no-restore-disk-objects, -d

    Command-Line Format--no-restore-disk-objects
    Permitted ValuesTypeboolean
    DefaultFALSE

    This option stops ndb_restore from restoring any NDB Cluster Disk Data objects, such as tablespaces and log file groups; see Section 18.5.12, “NDB Cluster Disk Data Tables”, for more information about these.

  • --no-upgrade, -u

    Command-Line Format--no-upgrade

    When using ndb_restore to restore a backup, VARCHAR columns created using the old fixed format are resized and recreated using the variable-width format now employed. This behavior can be overridden by specifying --no-upgrade.

  • --ndb-nodegroup-map=map, -z

    Command-Line Format--ndb-nodegroup-map=map

    This option can be used to restore a backup taken from one node group to a different node group. Its argument is a list of the form source_node_group, target_node_group.

  • --nodeid=#, -n

    Command-Line Format--nodeid=#
    Permitted ValuesTypenumeric
    Defaultnone

    Specify the node ID of the data node on which the backup was taken.

    When restoring to a cluster with different number of data nodes from that where the backup was taken, this information helps identify the correct set or sets of files to be restored to a given node. (In such cases, multiple files usually need to be restored to a single data node.) See Section 18.4.21.1, “Restoring to a different number of data nodes”, for additional information and examples.

  • --parallelism=#, -p

    Command-Line Format--parallelism=#
    Permitted ValuesTypenumeric
    Default128
    Minimum1
    Maximum1024

    ndb_restore uses single-row transactions to apply many rows concurrently. This parameter determines the number of parallel transactions (concurrent rows) that an instance of ndb_restore tries to use. By default, this is 128; the minimum is 1, and the maximum is 1024.

    The work of performing the inserts is parallelized across the threads in the data nodes involved. This mechanism is employed for restoring bulk data from the .Data file—that is, the fuzzy snapshot of the data; it is not used for building or rebuilding indexes. The change log is applied serially; index drops and builds are DDL operations and handled separately. There is no thread-level parallelism on the client side of the restore.

  • --preserve-trailing-spaces, -P

    Command-Line Format--preserve-trailing-spaces

    Cause trailing spaces to be preserved when promoting a fixed-width character data type to its variable-width equivalent—that is, when promoting a CHAR column value to VARCHAR, or a BINARY column value to VARBINARY. Otherwise, any trailing spaces are dropped from such column values when they are inserted into the new columns.

    Note

    Although you can promote CHAR columns to VARCHAR and BINARY columns to VARBINARY, you cannot promote VARCHAR columns to CHAR or VARBINARY columns to BINARY.

  • --print

    Command-Line Format--print
    Permitted ValuesTypeboolean
    DefaultFALSE

    Causes ndb_restore to print all data, metadata, and logs to stdout. Equivalent to using the --print_data, --print_meta, and --print_log options together.

    Note

    Use of --print or any of the --print_* options is in effect performing a dry run. Including one or more of these options causes any output to be redirected to stdout; in such cases, ndb_restore makes no attempt to restore data or metadata to an NDB Cluster.

  • --print_data

    Command-Line Format--print-data
    Permitted ValuesTypeboolean
    DefaultFALSE

    Cause ndb_restore to direct its output to stdout. Often used together with one or more of --tab, --fields-enclosed-by, --fields-optionally-enclosed-by, --fields-terminated-by, --hex, and --append.

    TEXT and BLOB column values are always truncated. In NDB 7.2.18 and earlier, such values are truncated to the first 240 bytes in the output; in NDB 7.2.19 and later, they are truncated to 256 bytes. (Bug #14571512, Bug #65467) This cannot currently be overridden when using --print_data.

  • --print_log

    Command-Line Format--print-log
    Permitted ValuesTypeboolean
    DefaultFALSE

    Cause ndb_restore to output its log to stdout.

  • --print_meta

    Command-Line Format--print-meta
    Permitted ValuesTypeboolean
    DefaultFALSE

    Print all metadata to stdout.

  • --progress-frequency=N

    Command-Line Format--progress-frequency=#
    Permitted ValuesTypenumeric
    Default0
    Minimum0
    Maximum65535

    Print a status report each N seconds while the restore is in progress. 0 (the default) causes no status reports to be printed. The maximum is 65535.

  • --promote-attributes, -A

    Command-Line Format--promote-attributes

    ndb_restore supports limited attribute promotion in much the same way that it is supported by MySQL replication; that is, data backed up from a column of a given type can generally be restored to a column using a larger, similar type. For example, data from a CHAR(20) column can be restored to a column declared as VARCHAR(20), VARCHAR(30), or CHAR(30); data from a MEDIUMINT column can be restored to a column of type INT or BIGINT. See Section 17.4.1.9.2, “Replication of Columns Having Different Data Types”, for a table of type conversions currently supported by attribute promotion.

    Attribute promotion by ndb_restore must be enabled explicitly, as follows:

    1. Prepare the table to which the backup is to be restored. ndb_restore cannot be used to re-create the table with a different definition from the original; this means that you must either create the table manually, or alter the columns which you wish to promote using ALTER TABLE after restoring the table metadata but before restoring the data.

    2. Invoke ndb_restore with the --promote-attributes option (short form -A) when restoring the table data. Attribute promotion does not occur if this option is not used; instead, the restore operation fails with an error.

    Prior to NDB 7.2.14, conversions between character data types and TEXT or BLOB were not handled correctly.

    Prior to NDB 7.2.18, demotion of TEXT to TINYTEXT was not handled correctly (Bug #18875137).

    When converting between character data types and TEXT or BLOB, only conversions between character types (CHAR and VARCHAR) and binary types (BINARY and VARBINARY) can be performed at the same time. For example, you cannot promote an INT column to BIGINT while promoting a VARCHAR column to TEXT in the same invocation of ndb_restore.

    Converting between TEXT columns using different character sets is not supported. Beginning with NDB 7.2.18, it is expressly disallowed (Bug #18875137).

    When performing conversions of character or binary types to TEXT or BLOB with ndb_restore, you may notice that it creates and uses one or more staging tables named table_name$STnode_id. These tables are not needed afterwards, and are normally deleted by ndb_restore following a successful restoration.

  • --rebuild-indexes

    Command-Line Format--rebuild-indexes

    Enable multi-threaded rebuilding of the ordered indexes while restoring a native NDB backup. The number of threads used for building ordered indexes by ndb_restore with this option is controlled by the BuildIndexThreads data node configuration parameter and the number of LDMs.

    It is necessary to use this option only for the first run of ndb_restore; this causes all ordered indexes to be rebuilt without using --rebuild-indexes again when restoring subsequent nodes. You should use this option prior to inserting new rows into the database; otherwise, it is possible for a row to be inserted that later causes a unique constraint violation when trying to rebuild the indexes.

    Building of ordered indices is parallelized with the number of LDMs by default. Offline index builds performed during node and system restarts can be made faster using the BuildIndexThreads data node configuration parameter; this parameter has no effect on dropping and rebuilding of indexes by ndb_restore, which is performed online.

    Rebuilding of unique indexes uses disk write bandwidth for redo logging and local checkpointing. An insufficient amount of this bandwith can lead to redo buffer overload or log overload errors. In such cases you can run ndb_restore --rebuild-indexes again; the process resumes at the point where the error occurred. You can also do this when you have encountered temporary errors. You can repeat execution of ndb_restore --rebuild-indexes indefinitely; you may be able to stop such errors by reducing the value of --parallelism. If the problem is insufficient space, you can increase the size of the redo log (FragmentLogFileSize node configuration parameter), or you can increase the speed at which LCPs are performed (MaxDiskWriteSpeed and related parameters), in order to free space more quickly.

  • --restore_data, -r

    Command-Line Format--restore-data
    Permitted ValuesTypeboolean
    DefaultFALSE

    Output NDB table data and logs.

  • --restore_epoch, -e

    Command-Line Format--restore-epoch

    Add (or restore) epoch information to the cluster replication status table. This is useful for starting replication on an NDB Cluster replication slave. When this option is used, the row in the mysql.ndb_apply_status having 0 in the id column is updated if it already exists; such a row is inserted if it does not already exist. (See Section 18.6.9, “NDB Cluster Backups With NDB Cluster Replication”.)

  • --restore_meta, -m

    Command-Line Format--restore-meta
    Permitted ValuesTypeboolean
    DefaultFALSE

    This option causes ndb_restore to print NDB table metadata.

    The first time you run the ndb_restore restoration program, you also need to restore the metadata. In other words, you must re-create the database tables—this can be done by running it with the --restore_meta (-m) option. Restoring the metadata need be done only on a single data node; this is sufficient to restore it to the entire cluster.

    Note

    The cluster should have an empty database when starting to restore a backup. (In other words, you should start the data nodes with --initial prior to performing the restore.)

  • --restore-privilege-tables

    Command-Line Format--restore-privilege-tables
    Permitted ValuesTypeboolean
    DefaultFALSE

    ndb_restore does not by default restore distributed MySQL privilege tables. This option causes ndb_restore to restore the privilege tables.

    This works only if the privilege tables were converted to NDB before the backup was taken. For more information, see Section 18.5.14, “Distributed MySQL Privileges for NDB Cluster”.

    This option was added in NDB 7.2.0.

  • --rewrite-database=olddb,newdb

    Command-Line Format--rewrite-database=olddb,newdb
    Permitted ValuesTypestring
    Defaultnone

    This option makes it possible to restore to a database having a different name from that used in the backup. For example, if a backup is made of a database named products, you can restore the data it contains to a database named inventory, use this option as shown here (omitting any other options that might be required):

    shell> ndb_restore --rewrite-database=product,inventory

    The option can be employed multiple times in a single invocation of ndb_restore. Thus it is possible to restore simultaneously from a database named db1 to a database named db2 and from a database named db3 to one named db4 using --rewrite-database=db1,db2 --rewrite-database=db3,db4. Other ndb_restore options may be used between multiple occurrences of --rewrite-database.

    In the event of conflicts between multiple --rewrite-database options, the last --rewrite-database option used, reading from left to right, is the one that takes effect. For example, if --rewrite-database=db1,db2 --rewrite-database=db1,db3 is used, only --rewrite-database=db1,db3 is honored, and --rewrite-database=db1,db2 is ignored. It is also possible to restore from multiple databases to a single database, so that --rewrite-database=db1,db3 --rewrite-database=db2,db3 restores all tables and data from databases db1 and db2 into database db3.

    Important

    When restoring from multiple backup databases into a single target database using --rewrite-database, no check is made for collisions between table or other object names, and the order in which rows are restored is not guaranteed. This means that it is possible in such cases for rows to be overwritten and updates to be lost.

  • --skip-broken-objects

    Command-Line Format--skip-broken-objects

    This option causes ndb_restore to ignore corrupt tables while reading a native NDB backup, and to continue restoring any remaining tables (that are not also corrupted). Currently, the --skip-broken-objects option works only in the case of missing blob parts tables.

  • --skip-table-check, -s

    Command-Line Format--skip-table-check

    It is possible to restore data without restoring table metadata. By default when doing this, ndb_restore fails with an error if a mismatch is found between the table data and the table schema; this option overrides that behavior.

    Some of the restrictions on mismatches in column definitions when restoring data using ndb_restore are relaxed; when one of these types of mismatches is encountered, ndb_restore does not stop with an error as it did previously, but rather accepts the data and inserts it into the target table while issuing a warning to the user that this is being done. This behavior occurs whether or not either of the options --skip-table-check or --promote-attributes is in use. These differences in column definitions are of the following types:

    • Different COLUMN_FORMAT settings (FIXED, DYNAMIC, DEFAULT)

    • Different STORAGE settings (MEMORY, DISK)

    • Different default values

    • Different distribution key settings

  • --skip-unknown-objects

    Command-Line Format--skip-unknown-objects

    This option causes ndb_restore to ignore any schema objects it does not recognize while reading a native NDB backup. This can be used for restoring a backup made from a cluster running NDB 7.5 to a cluster running NDB Cluster 7.4.

  • --tab=dir_name, -T dir_name

    Command-Line Format--tab=dir_name
    Permitted ValuesTypedirectory name

    Causes --print_data to create dump files, one per table, each named tbl_name.txt. It requires as its argument the path to the directory where the files should be saved; use . for the current directory.

  • --verbose=#

    Command-Line Format--verbose=#
    Permitted ValuesTypenumeric
    Default1
    Minimum0
    Maximum255

    Sets the level for the verbosity of the output. The minimum is 0; the maximum is 255. The default value is 1.

Error reporting.  ndb_restore reports both temporary and permanent errors. In the case of temporary errors, it may able to recover from them, and reports Restore successful, but encountered temporary error, please look at configuration in such cases.

Important

After using ndb_restore to initialize an NDB Cluster for use in circular replication, binary logs on the SQL node acting as the replication slave are not automatically created, and you must cause them to be created manually. To cause the binary logs to be created, issue a SHOW TABLES statement on that SQL node before running START SLAVE. This is a known issue in NDB Cluster.


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