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14.11.2.4 Configuring Buffer Pool Flushing

InnoDB performs certain tasks in the background, including flushing of dirty pages from the buffer pool, a task performed by the master thread. Dirty pages are those that have been modified but are not yet written to the data files on disk. InnoDB aggressively flushes buffer pool pages if the percentage of dirty pages in the buffer pool reaches the innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct threshold.

Adaptive Flushing

InnoDB uses an adaptive flushing algorithm to dynamically adjust the rate of flushing based on the speed of redo log generation and the current rate of flushing. The intent is to smooth overall performance by ensuring that flushing activity keeps pace with the current workload. Automatically adjusting the flushing rate helps avoid sudden dips in throughput that can occur when bursts of I/O activity due to buffer pool flushing affects the I/O capacity available for ordinary read and write activity.

Sharp checkpoints, which are typically associated with write-intensive workloads that generate a lot of redo entries, can cause a sudden change in throughput, for example. A sharp checkpoint occurs when InnoDB wants to reuse a portion of a log file. Before doing so, all dirty pages with redo entries in that portion of the log file must be flushed. If log files become full, a sharp checkpoint occurs, causing a temporary reduction in throughput. This scenario can occur even if innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct threshold is not reached.

The adaptive flushing algorithm helps avoid such scenarios by tracking the number of dirty pages in the buffer pool and the rate at which redo log records are being generated. Based on this information, it decides how many dirty pages to flush from the buffer pool each second, which permits it to manage sudden changes in workload.

Internal benchmarking has shown that the algorithm not only maintains throughput over time, but can also improve overall throughput significantly. However, adaptive flushing can affect the I/O pattern of a workload significantly and may not be appropriate in all cases. If adaptive flushing is not appropriate to the characteristics of your workload, you can disable it. Adaptive flushing controlled by the innodb_adaptive_flushing variable, which is enabled by default.

Be aware that if flushing falls behind, the rate of buffer pool flushing can exceed the I/O capacity available to InnoDB, as defined by innodb_io_capacity setting.

The innodb_io_capacity setting is applicable to all buffer pool instances. When dirty pages are flushed, I/O capacity is divided equally among buffer pool instances.