MySQL Shell provides commands which enable you to modify the
execution environment of the code editor, for example to configure
the active programming language or a MySQL Server connection. The
following table lists the commands that are available regardless
of the currently selected language. As commands need to be
available independent of the execution mode,
they start with an escape sequence, the
Print help about MySQL Shell, or search the online help.
Exit MySQL Shell.
In SQL mode, begin multiple-line mode. Code is cached and executed when an empty line is entered.
Show the current MySQL Shell status.
Switch execution mode to Python.
Switch execution mode to SQL.
Connect to a MySQL instance.
Reconnect to the same MySQL instance.
Disconnect the global session.
Specify the schema to use.
Execute a script file using the active language.
Show any warnings generated by a statement.
Do not show any warnings generated by a statement.
View and edit command line history.
Manually update the autocomplete name cache.
Query and change MySQL Shell configuration options.
Run the specified report using the provided options and arguments.
Run the specified report using the provided options and arguments, and refresh the results at regular intervals.
Open a command in the default system editor then present it in MySQL Shell.
Configure the pager which MySQL Shell uses to display text.
Disable any pager which MySQL Shell was configured to use.
Run the specified operating system command and display the results in MySQL Shell.
\help command can be used with or without
a parameter. When used without a parameter a general help
message is printed including information about the available
MySQL Shell commands, global objects and main help categories.
When used with a parameter, the parameter is used to search the available help based on the mode which the MySQL Shell is currently running in. The parameter can be a word, a command, an API function, or part of an SQL statement. The following categories exist:
AdminAPI- details the
dbaglobal object and the AdminAPI, which enables you to work with InnoDB Cluster, InnoDB ClusterSet, and InnoDB ReplicaSet.
X DevAPI- details the
mysqlxmodule as well as the capabilities of the X DevAPI, which enable you to work with MySQL as a Document Store
Shell Commands- provides details about the available built-in MySQL Shell commands.
ShellAPI- contains information about the
utilglobal objects, as well as the
mysqlmodule that enables executing SQL on MySQL Servers.
SQL Syntax- entry point to retrieve syntax help on SQL statements.
To search for help on a topic, for example an API function, use
the function name as a
can use the wildcard characters
? to match
any single character and
* to match multiple
characters in a search. The wildcard characters can be used one
or more times in the pattern. The following namespaces can also
be used when searching for help:
mysqlxfor X DevAPI
mysqlfor ShellAPI for classic MySQL protocol
shellfor other ShellAPI classes:
commandsfor MySQL Shell commands
cmdlinefor the mysqlsh command interface
For example to search for help on a topic, issue
x devapito search for help on the X DevAPI
\cto search for help on the MySQL Shell
dba.getClusterto search for help on the AdminAPI
mysqlx.Tableto search for help on the X DevAPI
mysqlx.Table.isViewto search for help on the
isViewfunction of the
when MySQL Shell is running in Python mode, use
mysqlx.Table.is_viewto search for help on the
isViewfunction of the
when MySQL Shell is running in SQL mode, if a global session to a MySQL server exists SQL help is displayed. For an overview use
sql syntaxas the search pattern.
Depending on the search pattern provided, one or more results could be found. If only one help topic contains the search pattern in its title, that help topic is displayed. If multiple topic titles match the pattern but one is an exact match, that help topic is displayed, followed by a list of the other topics with pattern matches in their titles. If no exact match is identified, a list of topics with pattern matches in their titles is displayed. If a list of topics is returned, you can select a topic to view from the list by entering the command again with an extended search pattern that matches the title of the relevant topic.
\connect command is used to connect to a
MySQL Server. See Section 4.3, “MySQL Shell Connections”.
If a password is required you are prompted for it.
option to create a session using the X Protocol to connect to
MySQL server instance. For example:
\connect --mysqlx root@localhost:33060
option to create a ClassicSession, enabling you to use
classic MySQL protocol to issue SQL directly on a server. For
\connect --mysql root@localhost:3306
The use of a single dash with the short form options (that is,
-mc) is deprecated
from version 8.0.13 of MySQL Shell.
--ssh option (available from
MySQL Shell 8.0.28) to create or reuse an SSH tunnel that
provides an encrypted connection to the MySQL server instance.
The use of AdminAPI commands is not supported over connections
made from MySQL Shell using SSH tunneling. Supply the URI for
connection to the SSH server in the format
[user@]hostname[:port], followed by the MySQL
instance URI, for example:
\connect --ssh firstname.lastname@example.org:2222 root@localhost:3306
When you use the
--ssh option, the port for
connection to the MySQL server instance must be specified in the
MySQL instance URI.
An SSH tunnel set up using the
command must use the default SSH configuration file and identity
file. For instructions to set these and further information on
SSH tunnel connections from MySQL Shell, see
Section 4.3.5, “Using an SSH Tunnel”. You can
set up an SSH tunnel using the
shell.connect() method or on the command line
to get additional setup options. Once established, an SSH tunnel
can be shared between connections to the same host from the same
user connecting from the same instance, whatever setup method
was originally used.
\reconnect command is specified without
any parameters or options. If the connection to the server is
lost, you can use the
which makes MySQL Shell try several reconnection attempts for
the session using the existing connection parameters. If those
attempts are unsuccessful, you can make a fresh connection using
\connect command and specifying the
\disconnect command, available from
MySQL Shell 8.0.22, is also specified without any parameters or
options. The command disconnects MySQL Shell's global session
(the session represented by the
global object) from the currently connected MySQL server
instance, so that you can close the connection but still
continue to use MySQL Shell.
If the connection to the server is lost, you can use the
\reconnect command, which makes MySQL Shell
try several reconnection attempts for the session using the
existing connection parameters. If those attempts are
unsuccessful, you can make a fresh connection using the
\connect command and specifying the
\status command displays information
about the current global connection. This includes information
about the server connected to, the character set in use, uptime,
and so on.
\source command or its alias
\. can be used in MySQL Shell's interactive
mode to execute code from a script file at a given path. For
As the code is executed using the active language, executing a script in a different language than the currently selected execution mode language could lead to unexpected results.
From MySQL Shell 8.0.19, for compatibility with the
mysql client, in SQL mode only, you can
execute code from a script file using the
source command with no backslash and an
optional SQL delimiter.
source or the alias
\. (which does not use an SQL delimiter) can
be used both in MySQL Shell's interactive mode for SQL, to
execute a script directly, and in a file of SQL code processed
in batch mode, to execute a further script from within the file.
So with MySQL Shell in SQL mode, you could now execute the
script in the
/tmp/mydata.sql file from
either interactive mode or batch mode using any of these three
source /tmp/mydata.sql; source /tmp/mydata.sql \. /tmp/mydata.sql
\source /tmp/mydata.sql is also
valid, but in interactive mode only.
In interactive mode, the
itself is added to the MySQL Shell history, but the contents of
the executed script file are not added to the history.
\use command enables you to choose which
schema is active, for example:
\use command requires a global
development session to be active. The
command sets the current schema to the specified
schema_name and updates the
db variable to the object that represents the
\history command lists the commands you
have issued previously in MySQL Shell. Issuing
\history shows history entries in the order
that they were issued with their history entry number, which can
be used with the
\history command provides the following
\history saveto save the history manually.
\history delete entrynumberto delete the individual history entry with the given number.
\history deleteto delete history entries within the range of the given entry numbers. If
goes past the last found history entry number, history entries are deleted up to and including the last entry.
\history deleteto delete the history entries from
up to and including the last entry.
\history delete -to delete the specified number of history entries starting with the last entry and working back. For example,
\history delete -10deletes the last 10 history entries.
\history clearto delete the entire history.
The history is not saved between sessions by default, so when
you exit MySQL Shell the history of what you issued during the
current session is lost. If you want to keep the history across
sessions, enable the MySQL Shell
history.autoSave option. For more
Section 5.5, “Code History”.
When you have disabled the autocomplete name cache feature, use
\rehash command to manually update the
cache. For example, after you load a new schema by issuing the
\rehash to update the
autocomplete name cache. After this autocomplete is aware of the
names used in the database, and you can autocomplete text such
as table names and so on. See
Section 5.3, “Code Autocompletion”.
\option command enables you to query and
change MySQL Shell configuration options in all modes. You can
\option command to list the
configuration options that have been set and show how their
value was last changed. You can also use it to set and unset
options, either for the session, or persistently in the
MySQL Shell configuration file. For instructions and a list of
the configuration options, see
Section 13.4, “Configuring MySQL Shell Options”.
You can configure MySQL Shell to use an external pager to read long onscreen output, such as the online help or the results of SQL queries. See Section 4.6, “Using a Pager”.
\show command runs the named report,
which can be either a built-in MySQL Shell report or a
user-defined report that has been registered with MySQL Shell.
You can specify the standard options for the command, and any
options or additional arguments that the report supports. The
\watch command runs a report in the same way
\show command, but then refreshes the
results at regular intervals until you cancel the command using
Ctrl + C. For instructions, see
Section 10.1.5, “Running MySQL Shell Reports”.
opens a command in the default system editor for editing, then
presents the edited command in MySQL Shell for execution. The
command can also be invoked using the key combination
Ctrl-X Ctrl-E. For details, see
Section 5.4, “Editing Code”.
runs the operating system command that you specify as an
argument to the command, then displays the output from the
command in MySQL Shell. MySQL Shell returns an error if it was
unable to execute the command. The output from the command is
returned as given by the operating system, and is not processed
by MySQL Shell's JSON wrapping function or by any external
pager tool that you have specified to display output.