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MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual
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Excerpts from this Manual SHOW CHARACTER SET Syntax

    [LIKE 'pattern' | WHERE expr]

The SHOW CHARACTER SET statement shows all available character sets. The LIKE clause, if present, indicates which character set names to match. The WHERE clause can be given to select rows using more general conditions, as discussed in Section 22.33, “Extensions to SHOW Statements”. For example:

mysql> SHOW CHARACTER SET LIKE 'latin%';
| Charset | Description                 | Default collation | Maxlen |
| latin1  | cp1252 West European        | latin1_swedish_ci |      1 |
| latin2  | ISO 8859-2 Central European | latin2_general_ci |      1 |
| latin5  | ISO 8859-9 Turkish          | latin5_turkish_ci |      1 |
| latin7  | ISO 8859-13 Baltic          | latin7_general_ci |      1 |

The Maxlen column shows the maximum number of bytes required to store one character.

The filename character set is for internal use only; consequently, SHOW CHARACTER SET does not display it.

You can also obtain information about character sets from INFORMATION_SCHEMA, which contains a CHARACTER_SETS table. See Section 22.1, “The INFORMATION_SCHEMA CHARACTER_SETS Table”.

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