12.17 Precision Math

MySQL 5.0 introduces precision math: numeric value handling that results in more accurate results and more control over invalid values than in earlier versions of MySQL. Precision math is based on two implementation changes:

  • The introduction of SQL modes in MySQL 5.0 that control how strict the server is about accepting or rejecting invalid data.

  • The introduction in MySQL 5.0.3 of a library for fixed-point arithmetic.

These changes result in the following characteristics for numeric operations and provide improved compliance with standard SQL:

  • Precise calculations: For exact-value numbers, calculations do not introduce floating-point errors. Instead, exact precision is used. For example, MySQL treats a number such as .0001 as an exact value rather than as an approximation, and summing it 10,000 times produces a result of exactly 1, not a value that is merely close to 1.

  • Well-defined rounding behavior: For exact-value numbers, the result of ROUND() depends on its argument, not on environmental factors such as how the underlying C library works.

  • Platform independence: Operations on exact numeric values are the same across different platforms such as Windows and Unix.

  • Control over handling of invalid values: Overflow and division by zero are detectable and can be treated as errors. For example, you can treat a value that is too large for a column as an error rather than having the value truncated to lie within the range of the column's data type. Similarly, you can treat division by zero as an error rather than as an operation that produces a result of NULL. The choice of which approach to take is determined by the setting of the server SQL mode.

The following discussion covers several aspects of how precision math works, including possible incompatibilities with older applications. At the end, some examples are given that demonstrate how MySQL handles numeric operations precisely. For information about controlling the SQL mode, see Section 5.1.7, “Server SQL Modes”.

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