MySQL 5.0 Reference Manual  /  ...  /  mysql_upgrade — Check Tables for MySQL Upgrade

4.4.9 mysql_upgrade — Check Tables for MySQL Upgrade

mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL Server. mysql_upgrade also upgrades the system tables so that you can take advantage of new privileges or capabilities that might have been added.

If mysql_upgrade finds that a table has a possible incompatibility, it performs a table check and, if problems are found, attempts a table repair. If the table cannot be repaired, see Section 2.19.4, “Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes” for manual table repair strategies.

You should execute mysql_upgrade each time you upgrade MySQL. It supersedes the older mysql_fix_privilege_tables script, which should no longer be used.

If you install MySQL from RPM packages on Linux, you must install the server and client RPMs. mysql_upgrade is included in the server RPM but requires the client RPM because the latter includes mysqlcheck. (See Section 2.12, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages”.)


You should always back up your current MySQL installation before performing an upgrade. See Section 7.2, “Database Backup Methods”.

Some upgrade incompatibilities may require special handling before you upgrade your MySQL installation and run mysql_upgrade. See Section 2.19.1, “Upgrading MySQL”, for instructions on determining whether any such incompatibilities apply to your installation and how to handle them.

To use mysql_upgrade, make sure that the server is running. Then invoke it like this:

shell> mysql_upgrade [options]

After running mysql_upgrade, stop the server and restart it so that any changes made to the system tables take effect.

If you have multiple MySQL server instances running, invoke mysql_upgrade with connection parameters appropriate for connecting to the desired server. For example, with servers running on the local host on parts 3306 through 3308, upgrade each of them by connecting to the appropriate port:

shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3306 [other_options]
shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3307 [other_options]
shell> mysql_upgrade --protocol=tcp -P 3308 [other_options]

For local host connections on Unix, the --protocol=tcp option forces a connection using TCP/IP rather than the Unix socket file.

mysql_upgrade executes the following commands to check and repair tables and to upgrade the system tables:

mysqlcheck --no-defaults --check-upgrade --all-databases --auto-repair
mysql < fix_priv_tables

Notes about the preceding commands:

  • Because mysql_upgrade invokes mysqlcheck with the --all-databases option, it processes all tables in all databases, which might take a long time to complete. Each table is locked and therefore unavailable to other sessions while it is being processed. Check and repair operations can be time-consuming, particularly for large tables.

  • For details about what checks the --check-upgrade option entails, see the description of the FOR UPGRADE option of the CHECK TABLE statement (see Section, “CHECK TABLE Syntax”).

  • fix_priv_tables represents a script generated internally by mysql_upgrade that contains SQL statements to upgrade the tables in the mysql database.

All checked and repaired tables are marked with the current MySQL version number. This ensures that next time you run mysql_upgrade with the same version of the server, it can tell whether there is any need to check or repair the table again.

mysql_upgrade also saves the MySQL version number in a file named mysql_upgrade_info in the data directory. This is used to quickly check whether all tables have been checked for this release so that table-checking can be skipped. To ignore this file and perform the check regardless, use the --force option.

In MySQL 5.0.19, mysql_upgrade was added as a shell script and worked only for Unix systems. As of MySQL 5.0.23, mysql_upgrade is an executable binary and is available on all systems.

mysql_upgrade does not upgrade the contents of the help tables. For upgrade instructions, see Section 5.1.8, “Server-Side Help”.

mysql_upgrade supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysql_upgrade] and [client] groups of an option file. Unrecognized options are passed to mysqlcheck. For information about option files, see Section 4.2.6, “Using Option Files”.

  • --help

    Display a short help message and exit.

  • --basedir=dir_name

    The path to the MySQL installation directory. This option is accepted for backward compatibility but ignored.

  • --character-sets-dir=dir_name

    The directory where character sets are installed. See Section 10.5, “Character Set Configuration”. This option was added in MySQL 5.0.30.

  • --compress

    Compress all information sent between the client and the server if both support compression. This option was added in MySQL 5.0.30.

  • --datadir=dir_name

    The path to the data directory. This option is accepted for backward compatibility but ignored.

  • --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

    Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is d:t:o,file_name. The default is d:t:O,/tmp/mysql_upgrade.trace.

  • --debug-info, -T

    Print some debugging information when the program exits.

  • --default-character-set=charset_name

    Use charset_name as the default character set. See Section 10.5, “Character Set Configuration”. This option was added in MySQL 5.0.30.

  • --defaults-extra-file=file_name

    Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix) before the user option file. As of MySQL 5.0.6, if the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is the full path name to the file.

  • --defaults-file=file_name

    Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is the full path name to the file.

  • --defaults-group-suffix=str

    Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of str. For example, mysql_upgrade normally reads the [client] and [mysql_upgrade] groups. If the --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, mysql_upgrade also reads the [client_other] and [mysql_upgrade_other] groups.

  • --force

    Ignore the mysql_upgrade_info file and force execution even if mysql_upgrade has already been executed for the current version of MySQL.

  • --host=host_name, -h host_name

    Connect to the MySQL server on the given host. This option was added in MySQL 5.0.30.

  • --no-defaults

    Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be used to prevent them from being read.

  • --password[=password], -p[password]

    The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option and the password. If you omit the password value following the --password or -p option on the command line, mysql_upgrade prompts for one.

    Specifying a password on the command line should be considered insecure. See Section, “End-User Guidelines for Password Security”. You can use an option file to avoid giving the password on the command line.

  • --pipe, -W

    On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections. This option was added in MySQL 5.0.30.

  • --port=port_num, -P port_num

    The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

  • --print-defaults

    Print the program name and all options that it gets from option files.

  • --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

    The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see Section 4.2.2, “Connecting to the MySQL Server”.

  • --shared-memory-base-name=name

    On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections made using shared memory to a local server. The default value is MYSQL. The shared-memory name is case sensitive.

    The server must be started with the --shared-memory option to enable shared-memory connections. This option was added in MySQL 5.0.30.

  • --socket=path, -S path

    For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

  • --ssl*

    Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and certificates. See Section, “SSL Command Options”. These options were added in MySQL 5.0.30.

  • --tmpdir=dir_name, -t dir_name

    The path name of the directory to use for creating temporary files. This option was added in MySQL 5.0.62.

  • --user=user_name, -u user_name

    The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server. The default user name is root.

  • --verbose

    Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.

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