mysql sends each SQL statement that you issue
to the server to be executed. There is also a set of commands
that mysql itself interprets. For a list of
these commands, type
\h at the
helpList of all MySQL commands: Note that all text commands must be first on line and end with ';' ? (\?) Synonym for `help'. clear (\c) Clear command. connect (\r) Reconnect to the server. Optional arguments are db and host. delimiter (\d) Set query delimiter. edit (\e) Edit command with $EDITOR. ego (\G) Send command to mysql server, display result vertically. exit (\q) Exit mysql. Same as quit. go (\g) Send command to mysql server. help (\h) Display this help. nopager (\n) Disable pager, print to stdout. notee (\t) Don't write into outfile. pager (\P) Set PAGER [to_pager]. Print the query results via PAGER. print (\p) Print current command. prompt (\R) Change your mysql prompt. quit (\q) Quit mysql. rehash (\#) Rebuild completion hash. source (\.) Execute an SQL script file. Takes a file name as an argument. status (\s) Get status information from the server. system (\!) Execute a system shell command. tee (\T) Set outfile [to_outfile]. Append everything into given outfile. use (\u) Use another database. Takes database name as argument. charset_name(\C) Switch to another charset. Might be needed for processing binlog. For server side help, type 'help contents'
Each command has both a long and short form. The long form is not case sensitive; the short form is. The long form can be followed by an optional semicolon terminator, but the short form should not.
The use of short-form commands within multi-line
*/ comments is not supported.
Display a help message listing the available mysql commands.
If you provide an argument to the
command, mysql uses it as a search string
to access server-side help from the contents of the MySQL
Reference Manual. For more information, see
Section 184.108.40.206, “mysql Server-Side Help”.
Change the default character set and issue a
NAMES statement. This enables the character set to
remain synchronized on the client and server if
mysql is run with auto-reconnect enabled
(which is not recommended), because the specified character
set is used for reconnects.
This command was added in MySQL 4.1.19. In MySQL 5.0 and up, the command name is charset
Clear the current input. Use this if you change your mind about executing the statement that you are entering.
Reconnect to the server. The optional database name and host name arguments may be given to specify the default database or the host where the server is running. If omitted, the current values are used.
Change the string that mysql interprets
as the separator between SQL statements. The default is the
semicolon character (“
The delimiter can be specified as an unquoted or quoted
argument. Quoting can be done with either single quote
') or douple quote
") characters. To include a quote within
a quoted string, either quote the string with the other
quote character or escape the quote with a backslash
\”) character. Backslash
should be avoided outside of quoted strings because it is
the escape character for MySQL. For an unquoted argument,
the delmiter is read up to the first space or end of line.
For a quoted argument, the delimiter is read up to the
matching quote on the line.
When the delimiter recognized by mysql is
set to something other than the default of
;”, instances of that
character are sent to the server without interpretation.
However, the server itself still interprets
;” as a statement delimiter
and processes statements accordingly. This behavior on the
server side comes into play for multiple-statement execution
(see Section 17.6.15, “C API Support for Multiple Statement Execution”).
Edit the current input statement. mysql
checks the values of the
VISUAL environment variables to determine
which editor to use. The default editor is
vi if neither variable is set.
The edit command works only in Unix.
Send the current statement to the server to be executed and display the result using vertical format.
Send the current statement to the server to be executed.
Disable output paging. See the description for pager.
The nopager command works only in Unix.
Disable output copying to the tee file. See the description for tee.
Enable output paging. By using the
--pager option when you invoke
mysql, it is possible to browse or search
query results in interactive mode with Unix programs such as
less, more, or any
other similar program. If you specify no value for the
option, mysql checks the value of the
PAGER environment variable and sets the
pager to that. Pager functionality works only in interactive
Output paging can be enabled interactively with the
pager command and disabled with
nopager. The command takes an optional
argument; if given, the paging program is set to that. With
no argument, the pager is set to the pager that was set on
the command line, or
stdout if no pager
Output paging works only in Unix because it uses the
popen() function, which does not exist on
Windows. For Windows, the tee option can
be used instead to save query output, although it is not as
convenient as pager for browsing output
in some situations.
Print the current input statement without executing it.
Reconfigure the mysql prompt to the given string. The special character sequences that can be used in the prompt are described later in this section.
If you specify the
prompt command with no
argument, mysql resets the prompt to the
Rebuild the completion hash that enables database, table,
and column name completion while you are entering
statements. (See the description for the
Read the named file and executes the statements contained
therein. On Windows, you can specify path name separators as
Provide status information about the connection and the
server you are using. If you are running in
status also prints the values for the
mysql variables that affect your queries.
Execute the given command using your default command interpreter.
The system command works only in Unix.
By using the
--tee option when
you invoke mysql, you can log statements
and their output. All the data displayed on the screen is
appended into a given file. This can be very useful for
debugging purposes also. mysql flushes
results to the file after each statement, just before it
prints its next prompt. Tee functionality works only in
You can enable this feature interactively with the tee command. Without a parameter, the previous file is used. The tee file can be disabled with the notee command. Executing tee again re-enables logging.
db_name as the default
Here are a few tips about the pager command:
You can use it to write to a file and the results go only to the file:
pager cat > /tmp/log.txt
You can also pass any options for the program that you want to use as your pager:
pager less -n -i -S
In the preceding example, note the
option. You may find it very useful for browsing wide query
results. Sometimes a very wide result set is difficult to
read on the screen. The
-S option to
less can make the result set much more
readable because you can scroll it horizontally using the
left-arrow and right-arrow keys. You can also use
-S interactively within
less to switch the horizontal-browse mode
on and off. For more information, read the
less manual page:
-X options may
be used with less to cause it to exit if
output fits on one screen, which is convenient when no
scrolling is necessary:
pager less -n -i -S -F -X
You can specify very complex pager commands for handling query output:
pager cat | tee /dr1/tmp/res.txt \
| tee /dr2/tmp/res2.txt | less -n -i -S
In this example, the command would send query results to two
files in two different directories on two different file
systems mounted on
/dr2, yet still display the results
onscreen using less.
You can also combine the tee and pager functions. Have a tee file enabled and pager set to less, and you are able to browse the results using the less program and still have everything appended into a file the same time. The difference between the Unix tee used with the pager command and the mysql built-in tee command is that the built-in tee works even if you do not have the Unix tee available. The built-in tee also logs everything that is printed on the screen, whereas the Unix tee used with pager does not log quite that much. Additionally, tee file logging can be turned on and off interactively from within mysql. This is useful when you want to log some queries to a file, but not others.
From MySQL 4.0.2 on, the prompt command
reconfigures the default
The string for defining the prompt can contain the following
|A counter that increments for each statement you issue|
|The full current date|
|The default database|
|The server host|
|Minutes of the current time|
|A newline character|
|The current month in three-letter format (Jan, Feb, …)|
|The current month in numeric format|
|The current TCP/IP port or socket file|
|The current time, in 24-hour military time (0–23)|
|The current time, standard 12-hour time (1–12)|
|Seconds of the current time|
|A tab character|
|Your user name|
|The server version|
|The current day of the week in three-letter format (Mon, Tue, …)|
|The current year, four digits|
|The current year, two digits|
|A space (a space follows the backslash)|
|A literal “|
You can set the prompt in several ways:
Use an environment variable. You can
MYSQL_PS1 environment variable to
a prompt string. For example:
export MYSQL_PS1="(\u@\h) [\d]> "
mysql --prompt="(\u@\h) [\d]> "(user@host) [database]>
Use an option file. You can set the
prompt option in the
[mysql] group of any MySQL option file,
/etc/my.cnf or the
.my.cnf file in your home directory.
[mysql] prompt=(\\u@\\h) [\\d]>\\_
In this example, note that the backslashes are doubled. If
you set the prompt using the
option in an option file, it is advisable to double the
backslashes when using the special prompt options. There is
some overlap in the set of permissible prompt options and
the set of special escape sequences that are recognized in
option files. (The rules for escape sequences in option
files are listed in Section 220.127.116.11, “Using Option Files”.) The
overlap may cause you problems if you use single
backslashes. For example,
interpreted as a space rather than as the current seconds
value. The following example shows how to define a prompt
within an option file to include the current time in
[mysql] prompt="\\r:\\m:\\s> "
Set the prompt interactively. You can
change your prompt interactively by using the
command. For example:
prompt (\u@\h) [\d]>\_PROMPT set to '(\u@\h) [\d]>\_' (
database]> prompt Returning to default PROMPT of mysql> mysql>