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MySQL 5.6 Reference Manual  /  ...  /  The Physical Structure of an InnoDB Index

14.6.2.2 The Physical Structure of an InnoDB Index

All InnoDB indexes are B-trees where the index records are stored in the leaf pages of the tree. The default size of an index page is 16KB. The page size is determined by the innodb_page_size setting when when the MySQL instance is initialized. See Section 14.8.1, “InnoDB Startup Configuration”.

When new records are inserted into an InnoDB clustered index, InnoDB tries to leave 1/16 of the page free for future insertions and updates of the index records. If index records are inserted in a sequential order (ascending or descending), the resulting index pages are about 15/16 full. If records are inserted in a random order, the pages are from 1/2 to 15/16 full. If the fill factor of an index page drops below 1/2, InnoDB tries to contract the index tree to free the page.