4.5.1.1 mysql Options

mysql supports the following options, which can be specified on the command line or in the [mysql] and [client] groups of an option file. For information about option files used by MySQL programs, see Section 4.2.6, “Using Option Files”.

Table 4.3 mysql Options

FormatDescriptionIntroduced
--auto-rehashEnable automatic rehashing 
--batchDo not use history file 
--bind-addressUse specified network interface to connect to MySQL Server5.1.22-ndb-6.3.4
--character-sets-dirDirectory where character sets are installed 
--column-namesWrite column names in results 
--column-type-infoDisplay result set metadata5.1.14
--commentsWhether to retain or strip comments in statements sent to the server5.1.23
--compressCompress all information sent between client and server 
--connect_timeoutNumber of seconds before connection timeout 
--databaseThe database to use 
--debugWrite debugging log; supported only if MySQL was built with debugging support 
--debug-checkPrint debugging information when program exits5.1.21
--debug-infoPrint debugging information, memory, and CPU statistics when program exits 
--default-character-setSpecify default character set 
--defaults-extra-fileRead named option file in addition to usual option files 
--defaults-fileRead only named option file 
--defaults-group-suffixOption group suffix value 
--delimiterSet the statement delimiter 
--executeExecute the statement and quit 
--forceContinue even if an SQL error occurs 
--helpDisplay help message and exit 
--hostConnect to MySQL server on given host 
--htmlProduce HTML output 
--ignore-spacesIgnore spaces after function names 
--line-numbersWrite line numbers for errors 
--local-infileEnable or disable for LOCAL capability for LOAD DATA INFILE 
--max_allowed_packetMaximum packet length to send to or receive from server 
--max_join_sizeThe automatic limit for rows in a join when using --safe-updates 
--named-commandsEnable named mysql commands 
--net_buffer_lengthBuffer size for TCP/IP and socket communication 
--no-auto-rehashDisable automatic rehashing 
--no-beepDo not beep when errors occur 
--no-defaultsRead no option files 
--no-named-commandsDisable named mysql commands 
--no-pagerDeprecated form of --skip-pager 
--no-teeDo not copy output to a file 
--one-databaseIgnore statements except those for the default database named on the command line 
--pagerUse the given command for paging query output 
--passwordPassword to use when connecting to server 
--pipeOn Windows, connect to server using named pipe 
--portTCP/IP port number to use for connection 
--print-defaultsPrint default options 
--promptSet the prompt to the specified format 
--protocolConnection protocol to use 
--quickDo not cache each query result 
--rawWrite column values without escape conversion 
--reconnectIf the connection to the server is lost, automatically try to reconnect 
--i-am-a-dummy, --safe-updatesAllow only UPDATE and DELETE statements that specify key values 
--secure-authDo not send passwords to server in old (pre-4.1) format 
--select_limitThe automatic limit for SELECT statements when using --safe-updates 
--shared-memory-base-nameThe name of shared memory to use for shared-memory connections 
--show-warningsShow warnings after each statement if there are any 
--sigint-ignoreIgnore SIGINT signals (typically the result of typing Control+C) 
--silentSilent mode 
--skip-auto-rehashDisable automatic rehashing 
--skip-column-namesDo not write column names in results 
--skip-line-numbersSkip line numbers for errors 
--skip-named-commandsDisable named mysql commands 
--skip-pagerDisable paging 
--skip-reconnectDisable reconnecting 
--socketFor connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use 
--sslEnable secure connection 
--ssl-caPath of file that contains list of trusted SSL CAs 
--ssl-capathPath of directory that contains trusted SSL CA certificates in PEM format 
--ssl-certPath of file that contains X509 certificate in PEM format 
--ssl-cipherList of permitted ciphers to use for connection encryption 
--ssl-keyPath of file that contains X509 key in PEM format 
--ssl-verify-server-certVerify server certificate Common Name value against host name used when connecting to server5.1.11
--tableDisplay output in tabular format 
--teeAppend a copy of output to named file 
--unbufferedFlush the buffer after each query 
--userMySQL user name to use when connecting to server 
--verboseVerbose mode 
--versionDisplay version information and exit 
--verticalPrint query output rows vertically (one line per column value) 
--waitIf the connection cannot be established, wait and retry instead of aborting 
--xmlProduce XML output 

  • --help, -?

    Display a help message and exit.

  • --auto-rehash

    Enable automatic rehashing. This option is on by default, which enables database, table, and column name completion. Use --disable-auto-rehash to disable rehashing. That causes mysql to start faster, but you must issue the rehash command or its \# shortcut if you want to use name completion.

    To complete a name, enter the first part and press Tab. If the name is unambiguous, mysql completes it. Otherwise, you can press Tab again to see the possible names that begin with what you have typed so far. Completion does not occur if there is no default database.

    Note

    This feature requires a MySQL client that is compiled with the readline library. Typically, the readline library is not available on Windows.

  • --batch, -B

    Print results using tab as the column separator, with each row on a new line. With this option, mysql does not use the history file.

    Batch mode results in nontabular output format and escaping of special characters. Escaping may be disabled by using raw mode; see the description for the --raw option.

  • --bind-address=ip_address

    On a computer having multiple network interfaces, use this option to select which interface to use for connecting to the MySQL server.

    This option is supported only in the version of the mysql client that is supplied with MySQL Cluster, beginning with MySQL Cluster NDB 6.3.4. It is not available in standard MySQL 5.1 releases.

  • --character-sets-dir=dir_name

    The directory where character sets are installed. See Section 10.5, “Character Set Configuration”.

  • --column-names

    Write column names in results.

  • --column-type-info

    Display result set metadata. This option was added in MySQL 5.1.14. (Before that, use --debug-info.)

  • --comments, -c

    Whether to preserve comments in statements sent to the server. The default is --skip-comments (discard comments), enable with --comments (preserve comments). This option was added in MySQL 5.1.23.

  • --compress, -C

    Compress all information sent between the client and the server if both support compression.

  • --database=db_name, -D db_name

    The database to use. This is useful primarily in an option file.

  • --debug[=debug_options], -# [debug_options]

    Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is d:t:o,file_name. The default is d:t:o,/tmp/mysql.trace.

    This option is available only if MySQL was built using --with-debug. MySQL release binaries are not built using this option.

  • --debug-check

    Print some debugging information when the program exits. This option was added in MySQL 5.1.21.

  • --debug-info, -T

    Before MySQL 5.1.14, this option prints debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics when the program exits, and also causes display of result set metadata during execution. As of MySQL 5.1.14, use --column-type-info to display result set metadata.

  • --default-character-set=charset_name

    Use charset_name as the default character set for the client and connection.

    A common issue that can occur when the operating system uses utf8 or another multibyte character set is that output from the mysql client is formatted incorrectly, due to the fact that the MySQL client uses the latin1 character set by default. You can usually fix such issues by using this option to force the client to use the system character set instead.

    See Section 10.5, “Character Set Configuration”, for more information.

  • --defaults-extra-file=file_name

    Read this option file after the global option file but (on Unix) before the user option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is the full path name to the file.

  • --defaults-file=file_name

    Use only the given option file. If the file does not exist or is otherwise inaccessible, an error occurs. file_name is the full path name to the file.

  • --defaults-group-suffix=str

    Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of str. For example, mysql normally reads the [client] and [mysql] groups. If the --defaults-group-suffix=_other option is given, mysql also reads the [client_other] and [mysql_other] groups.

  • --delimiter=str

    Set the statement delimiter. The default is the semicolon character (;).

  • --disable-named-commands

    Disable named commands. Use the \* form only, or use named commands only at the beginning of a line ending with a semicolon (;). mysql starts with this option enabled by default. However, even with this option, long-format commands still work from the first line. See Section 4.5.1.2, “mysql Commands”.

  • --execute=statement, -e statement

    Execute the statement and quit. The default output format is like that produced with --batch. See Section 4.2.4, “Using Options on the Command Line”, for some examples. With this option, mysql does not use the history file.

  • --force, -f

    Continue even if an SQL error occurs.

  • --host=host_name, -h host_name

    Connect to the MySQL server on the given host.

  • --html, -H

    Produce HTML output.

  • --ignore-spaces, -i

    Ignore spaces after function names. The effect of this is described in the discussion for the IGNORE_SPACE SQL mode (see Section 5.1.7, “Server SQL Modes”).

  • --line-numbers

    Write line numbers for errors. Disable this with --skip-line-numbers.

  • --local-infile[={0|1}]

    Enable or disable LOCAL capability for LOAD DATA INFILE. With no value, the option enables LOCAL. The option may be given as --local-infile=0 or --local-infile=1 to explicitly disable or enable LOCAL. Enabling LOCAL has no effect if the server does not also support it.

  • --named-commands, -G

    Enable named mysql commands. Long-format commands are permitted, not just short-format commands. For example, quit and \q both are recognized. Use --skip-named-commands to disable named commands. See Section 4.5.1.2, “mysql Commands”.

  • --no-auto-rehash, -A

    This has the same effect as --skip-auto-rehash. See the description for --auto-rehash.

  • --no-beep, -b

    Do not beep when errors occur.

  • --no-defaults

    Do not read any option files. If program startup fails due to reading unknown options from an option file, --no-defaults can be used to prevent them from being read.

  • --no-named-commands, -g

    Deprecated, use --disable-named-commands instead. --no-named-commands is removed in MySQL 5.5.

  • --no-pager

    Deprecated form of --skip-pager. See the --pager option. --no-pager is removed in MySQL 5.5.

  • --no-tee

    Deprecated form of --skip-tee. See the --tee option. --no-tee is removed in MySQL 5.5.

  • --one-database, -o

    Ignore statements except those that occur while the default database is the one named on the command line. This option is rudimentary and should be used with care. Statement filtering is based only on USE statements.

    Initially, mysql executes statements in the input because specifying a database db_name on the command line is equivalent to inserting USE db_name at the beginning of the input. Then, for each USE statement encountered, mysql accepts or rejects following statements depending on whether the database named is the one on the command line. The content of the statements is immaterial.

    Suppose that mysql is invoked to process this set of statements:

    DELETE FROM db2.t2;
    USE db2;
    DROP TABLE db1.t1;
    CREATE TABLE db1.t1 (i INT);
    USE db1;
    INSERT INTO t1 (i) VALUES(1);
    CREATE TABLE db2.t1 (j INT);
    

    If the command line is mysql --force --one-database db1, mysql handles the input as follows:

    • The DELETE statement is executed because the default database is db1, even though the statement names a table in a different database.

    • The DROP TABLE and CREATE TABLE statements are not executed because the default database is not db1, even though the statements name a table in db1.

    • The INSERT and CREATE TABLE statements are executed because the default database is db1, even though the CREATE TABLE statement names a table in a different database.

  • --pager[=command]

    Use the given command for paging query output. If the command is omitted, the default pager is the value of your PAGER environment variable. Valid pagers are less, more, cat [> filename], and so forth. This option works only on Unix and only in interactive mode. To disable paging, use --skip-pager. Section 4.5.1.2, “mysql Commands”, discusses output paging further.

  • --password[=password], -p[password]

    The password to use when connecting to the server. If you use the short option form (-p), you cannot have a space between the option and the password. If you omit the password value following the --password or -p option on the command line, mysql prompts for one.

    Specifying a password on the command line should be considered insecure. See Section 6.1.2.1, “End-User Guidelines for Password Security”. You can use an option file to avoid giving the password on the command line.

  • --pipe, -W

    On Windows, connect to the server using a named pipe. This option applies only if the server supports named-pipe connections.

  • --port=port_num, -P port_num

    The TCP/IP port number to use for the connection.

  • --print-defaults

    Print the program name and all options that it gets from option files.

  • --prompt=format_str

    Set the prompt to the specified format. The default is mysql>. The special sequences that the prompt can contain are described in Section 4.5.1.2, “mysql Commands”.

  • --protocol={TCP|SOCKET|PIPE|MEMORY}

    The connection protocol to use for connecting to the server. It is useful when the other connection parameters normally would cause a protocol to be used other than the one you want. For details on the permissible values, see Section 4.2.2, “Connecting to the MySQL Server”.

  • --quick, -q

    Do not cache each query result, print each row as it is received. This may slow down the server if the output is suspended. With this option, mysql does not use the history file.

  • --raw, -r

    For tabular output, the boxing around columns enables one column value to be distinguished from another. For nontabular output (such as is produced in batch mode or when the --batch or --silent option is given), special characters are escaped in the output so they can be identified easily. Newline, tab, NUL, and backslash are written as \n, \t, \0, and \\. The --raw option disables this character escaping.

    The following example demonstrates tabular versus nontabular output and the use of raw mode to disable escaping:

    % mysql
    mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
    +----------+
    | CHAR(92) |
    +----------+
    | \        |
    +----------+
    
    % mysql -s
    mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
    CHAR(92)
    \\
    
    % mysql -s -r
    mysql> SELECT CHAR(92);
    CHAR(92)
    \
    
  • --reconnect

    If the connection to the server is lost, automatically try to reconnect. A single reconnect attempt is made each time the connection is lost. To suppress reconnection behavior, use --skip-reconnect.

  • --safe-updates, --i-am-a-dummy, -U

    Permit only those UPDATE and DELETE statements that specify which rows to modify by using key values. If you have set this option in an option file, you can override it by using --safe-updates on the command line. See Section 4.5.1.6, “mysql Tips”, for more information about this option.

  • --secure-auth

    Do not send passwords to the server in old (pre-4.1) format. This prevents connections except for servers that use the newer password format.

  • --shared-memory-base-name=name

    On Windows, the shared-memory name to use, for connections made using shared memory to a local server. The default value is MYSQL. The shared-memory name is case sensitive.

    The server must be started with the --shared-memory option to enable shared-memory connections.

  • --show-warnings

    Cause warnings to be shown after each statement if there are any. This option applies to interactive and batch mode.

  • --sigint-ignore

    Ignore SIGINT signals (typically the result of typing Control+C).

  • --silent, -s

    Silent mode. Produce less output. This option can be given multiple times to produce less and less output.

    This option results in nontabular output format and escaping of special characters. Escaping may be disabled by using raw mode; see the description for the --raw option.

  • --skip-column-names, -N

    Do not write column names in results.

  • --skip-line-numbers, -L

    Do not write line numbers for errors. Useful when you want to compare result files that include error messages.

  • --socket=path, -S path

    For connections to localhost, the Unix socket file to use, or, on Windows, the name of the named pipe to use.

  • --ssl*

    Options that begin with --ssl specify whether to connect to the server using SSL and indicate where to find SSL keys and certificates. See Section 6.3.6.5, “Command Options for Secure Connections”.

  • --table, -t

    Display output in table format. This is the default for interactive use, but can be used to produce table output in batch mode.

  • --tee=file_name

    Append a copy of output to the given file. This option works only in interactive mode. Section 4.5.1.2, “mysql Commands”, discusses tee files further.

  • --unbuffered, -n

    Flush the buffer after each query.

  • --user=user_name, -u user_name

    The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server.

  • --verbose, -v

    Verbose mode. Produce more output about what the program does. This option can be given multiple times to produce more and more output. (For example, -v -v -v produces table output format even in batch mode.)

  • --version, -V

    Display version information and exit.

  • --vertical, -E

    Print query output rows vertically (one line per column value). Without this option, you can specify vertical output for individual statements by terminating them with \G.

  • --wait, -w

    If the connection cannot be established, wait and retry instead of aborting.

  • --xml, -X

    Produce XML output.

    Note

    Prior to MySQL 5.1.12, there was no differentiation in the output when using this option between columns containing the NULL value and columns containing the string literal 'NULL'; both were represented as

    <field name="column_name">NULL</field>
    

    Beginning with MySQL 5.1.12, the output when --xml is used with mysql matches that of mysqldump --xml. See Section 4.5.4, “mysqldump — A Database Backup Program” for details.

    Beginning with MySQL 5.1.18, the XML output also uses an XML namespace, as shown here:

    shell> mysql --xml -uroot -e "SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'"
    <?xml version="1.0"?>
    
    <resultset statement="SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'version%'" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
    <row>
    <field name="Variable_name">version</field>
    <field name="Value">5.0.40-debug</field>
    </row>
    
    <row>
    <field name="Variable_name">version_comment</field>
    <field name="Value">Source distribution</field>
    </row>
    
    <row>
    <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_machine</field>
    <field name="Value">i686</field>
    </row>
    
    <row>
    <field name="Variable_name">version_compile_os</field>
    <field name="Value">suse-linux-gnu</field>
    </row>
    </resultset>
    

    (See Bug #25946.)

You can also set the following variables by using --var_name=value. The --set-variable format is deprecated and is removed in MySQL 5.5.

  • connect_timeout

    The number of seconds before connection timeout. (Default value is 0.)

  • max_allowed_packet

    The maximum size of the buffer for client/server communication. The default is 16MB, the maximum is 1GB.

  • max_join_size

    The automatic limit for rows in a join when using --safe-updates. (Default value is 1,000,000.)

  • net_buffer_length

    The buffer size for TCP/IP and socket communication. (Default value is 16KB.)

  • select_limit

    The automatic limit for SELECT statements when using --safe-updates. (Default value is 1,000.)


User Comments
  Posted by Philip Stoev on April 5, 2008
"escape conversion" means that if you execute:

$ mysql -r --batch -e 'select "a\nb"'
you get:
a
b
a
b

and if you execute:

$mysql -r --batch -e 'select "a\nb"'

you get:

a
b
a\nb

This is especially pronounced when you try to dump SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS

$
  Posted by Brian Candler on February 26, 2013
NOTE: In batch mode the carriage-return character (hex 0D) is not escaped to \r.

This means that if you export data using --batch, and a column contains this character, and you transfer this file to a Windows host, it may be interpreted as a line break.

As a workaround:

select replace(col, '\r', '\\r') ...

This replaces 0D with two characters (backslash and r). However in the output this will show as \\r because the backslash itself gets escaped, unless you use --raw.

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