The MySQL server has a compiled-in default character set and
collation. To change these defaults, use the
--collation-server options when you
start the server. See Server Command Options. The
collation must be a legal collation for the default character set.
To determine which collations are available for each character
set, use the
statement or query the
If you try to use a character set that is not compiled into your binary, you might run into the following problems:
If your program uses an incorrect path to determine where the character sets are stored (which is typically the
share/charsetsdirectory under the MySQL installation directory), this can be fixed by using the
--character-sets-diroption when you run the program. For example, to specify a directory to be used by MySQL client programs, list it in the
[client]group of your option file. The examples given here show what the setting might look like for Unix or Windows, respectively:
[client] character-sets-dir=/usr/local/mysql/share/mysql/charsets [client] character-sets-dir="C:/Program Files/MySQL/MySQL Server 8.3/share/charsets"
If the character set is a complex character set that cannot be loaded dynamically, you must recompile the program with support for the character set.
For Unicode character sets, you can define collations without recompiling by using LDML notation. See Section 1.14.4, “Adding a UCA Collation to a Unicode Character Set”.
If the character set is a dynamic character set, but you do not have a configuration file for it, you should install the configuration file for the character set from a new MySQL distribution.
If your character set index file (
Index.xml) does not contain the name for the character set, your program displays an error message:
Character set 'charset_name' is not a compiled character set and is not specified in the '/usr/share/mysql/charsets/Index.xml' file
To solve this problem, you should either get a new index file or manually add the name of any missing character sets to the current file.
You can force client programs to use specific character set as follows:
This is normally unnecessary. However, when
character_set_system differs from
character_set_client, and you
input characters manually (as database object identifiers, column
values, or both), these may be displayed incorrectly in output
from the client or the output itself may be formatted incorrectly.
In such cases, starting the mysql client with
is, setting the client character set to match the system character
set—should fix the problem.