WL#8920: Improve usability of UUID manipulations

Affects: Server-8.0   —   Status: Complete   —   Priority: Medium

The goal of this WL is to improve the experience of users working with UUID
while not implementing a new data type.

* Some additional insight into UUIDs the standard format can be found 
here: https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4122.txt

Problem
=======
1) The column type binary(16) is extensively used as a compact storage for
UUID's. But in order to transform the text (human-readable) format into binary
format, users must use some text manipulation functions like unhex() and 
replace().
Example:
unhex(replace('aab5d5fd-70c1-11e5-a4fb-b026b977eb28', '-', ''))

2) in order to do the reverse transformation, from the binary(16) to
human-readable format, users must use even more text manipulation functions.
Example:
insert(
    insert(
      insert(
        insert(hex(uuid_bin),9,0,'-'),
        14,0,'-'),
      19,0,'-'),
    24,0,'-')

3) A valid UUID text must have a certain length and be made up of only certain
characters. In MySQL there is no simple way to validate text UUIDs.

4) UUIDs version 1 store the time-low at the 
beginning of the string making the index inserts very slow (since the variations 
between two consecutive generated UUIDs are very high at the beginning of the 
string).

The way this problem will be solved is by providing the user with 3 new SQL
functions:
- two functions will take care of the conversion to/from binary/text format,
with an optional twist to help indexing,
- one function will validate the text format.
F-1.1: UUID_TO_BIN(arg1) should return valid VARBINARY(16) data for any
valid UUID-string in <arg1>. All specified UUID-formats should be supported:
- UUID without dashes, ex 12345678123456781234567812345678
- UUID with braces, ex {12345678-1234-5678-1234-567812345678}
- standard UUID, ex 12345678-1234-5678-1234-567812345678,
uppercase/lowercase letters should be accepted. For all those examples, the 
result should be a string starting with a byte of hex ASCII code 0x12, then 
another byte of code 0x34, etc. The validation will be simple, the version 
number bit will not be check, neither the point in time of the timestamp will 
not be checked. The binary data stored should be in the same order as the text.

F-1.2: UUID_TO_BIN(arg1,arg2) should behave as in F-1.1 if <arg2> is FALSE. If
instead it is true, the binary data stored should be shuffled so that the time-
low (first group) and  time-high parts (third group) are swapped. The rest of 
the bytes will remain  in the same order as the text version. This can give 
better indexing as the rapidly-varying part is moved to the right. The function 
assumes that the UUID is v1 without complaining if it's not.

F-1.3: if the function UUID_TO_BIN is called with invalid UUIDs, an error will
be thrown.

F-1.4: if the function UUID_TO_BIN is called with NULL argument for the UUID 
string, the function should return NULL without any warning/error.

F-2.1 BIN_TO_UUID should return a valid UUID string for the VARBINARY(16) UUID 
provided as argument. It should be in the standard format, with downcase
letters. The validation will be simple, it will check that the binary data has 
the size 16: the version number bit will not be tested, nor the timestamp. 
The UUID string result should have the same byte-order. This is the inverse of 
UUID_TO_BIN.

F-2.2 BIN_TO_UUID(arg1,arg2) should behave as in F-2.1 if <arg2> is FALSE. If
instead it is true, the function should return a valid UUID string having the
time-low and time-high parts swapped back to their original position.The 
function assumes that the UUID is v1 without complaining if it's not.

F-2.3: if the function BIN_TO_UUID is called with invalid arguments, an error
will be thrown.

F-2.3: if the function BIN_TO_UUID is called with NULL argument, the NULL 
value will be returned without any warnings/errors.

F-3.1: IS_UUID should return TRUE for valid UUIDs. The function will only 
validate that the string is correctly formatted: correct size, if it uses the 
format with dashes- all dashes are in the right place and all the groups have 
the right amount of characters per group, if it contains curly brackets- both 
exists and are in the right place. No other validation is done.

F-3.2: IS_UUID should return FALSE if the argument is not a valid UUID, and NULL
if the argument is NULL. No warnings/errors will be thrown.

            
binary_log::Uuid will be changed to parse more UUID formats. Previously the only 
allowed formats were
    XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX
now:
    XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX or
    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX or
    {XXXXXXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX}
can be validated and parsed.

This required some changes on the interface:
  -  static bool is_valid(const char *string);
     became
     static bool is_valid(const char *string, size_t len);

  -  int parse(const char *string);
     became
     int parse(const char *string, size_t len);

 -   and a new function was added:
     static int parse(const char* string, size_t len, char *out_string);

Three new classes were added to the Item tree:
  -  class Item_func_uuid_to_bin : public Item_str_func
  -  class Item_func_bin_to_uuid : public Item_str_ascii_func
  -  class Item_func_is_uuid : public Item_bool_func

Also classes used to create the functions were added
  -  class Create_func_uuid_to_bin : public Create_native_func
     (function has variable number of arguments)
  -  class Create_func_bin_to_uuid : public Create_native_func
     (since function has variable number of arguments)
  -  class Create_func_is_uuid : public Create_func_arg1