MySQL Shell API 8.3.0
Unified development interface for MySQL Products
Functions

Global object that groups miscellaneous tools like upgrade checker and JSON import. More...

Functions

Undefined checkForServerUpgrade (ConnectionData connectionData, Dictionary options)
 Performs series of tests on specified MySQL server to check if the upgrade process will succeed. More...
 
Undefined importJson (String file, Dictionary options)
 Import JSON documents from file to collection or table in MySQL Server using X Protocol session. More...
 
Undefined importTable (List files, Dictionary options)
 Import table dump stored in files to target table using LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE calls in parallel connections. More...
 
Undefined loadDump (String url, Dictionary options)
 Loads database dumps created by MySQL Shell. More...
 
Undefined exportTable (String table, String outputUrl, Dictionary options)
 Exports the specified table to the data dump file. More...
 
Undefined dumpTables (String schema, List tables, String outputUrl, Dictionary options)
 Dumps the specified tables or views from the given schema to the files in the target directory. More...
 
Undefined dumpSchemas (List schemas, String outputUrl, Dictionary options)
 Dumps the specified schemas to the files in the output directory. More...
 
Undefined dumpInstance (String outputUrl, Dictionary options)
 Dumps the whole database to files in the output directory. More...
 
Undefined copyInstance (ConnectionData connectionData, Dictionary options)
 Copies a source instance to the target instance. Requires an open global Shell session to the source instance, if there is none, an exception is raised. More...
 
Undefined copySchemas (List schemas, ConnectionData connectionData, Dictionary options)
 Copies schemas from the source instance to the target instance. Requires an open global Shell session to the source instance, if there is none, an exception is raised. More...
 
Undefined copyTables (String schema, List tables, ConnectionData connectionData, Dictionary options)
 Copies tables and views from schema in the source instance to the target instance. Requires an open global Shell session to the source instance, if there is none, an exception is raised. More...
 

Detailed Description

Global object that groups miscellaneous tools like upgrade checker and JSON import.

Function Documentation

◆ checkForServerUpgrade()

Undefined checkForServerUpgrade ( ConnectionData  connectionData,
Dictionary  options 
)

Performs series of tests on specified MySQL server to check if the upgrade process will succeed.

Parameters
connectionDataOptional the connection data to server to be checked
optionsOptional dictionary of options to modify tool behaviour.

If no connectionData is specified tool will try to establish connection using data from current session.

Tool behaviour can be modified with following options:

  • configPath - full path to MySQL server configuration file.
  • outputFormat - value can be either TEXT (default) or JSON.
  • targetVersion - version to which upgrade will be checked (default=" MYSH_VERSION ")
  • password - password for connection.

The connection data may be specified in the following formats:

  • A URI string
  • A dictionary with the connection options

A basic URI string has the following format:

[scheme://][user[:password]@]<host[:port]|socket>[/schema][?option=value&option=value...]

Connection Options

The following options are valid for use either in a URI or in a dictionary:

  • ssl-mode: The SSL mode to be used in the connection.
  • ssl-ca: The path to the X509 certificate authority file in PEM format.
  • ssl-capath: The path to the directory that contains the X509 certificate authority files in PEM format.
  • ssl-cert: The path to the SSL public key certificate file in PEM format.
  • ssl-key: The path to the SSL private key file in PEM format.
  • ssl-crl: The path to file that contains certificate revocation lists.
  • ssl-crlpath: The path of directory that contains certificate revocation list files.
  • ssl-cipher: The list of permissible encryption ciphers for connections that use TLS protocols up through TLSv1.2.
  • tls-version: List of protocols permitted for secure connections.
  • tls-ciphers: List of TLS v1.3 ciphers to use.
  • auth-method: Authentication method.
  • get-server-public-key: Request public key from the server required for RSA key pair-based password exchange. Use when connecting to MySQL 8.0 servers with classic MySQL sessions with SSL mode DISABLED.
  • server-public-key-path: The path name to a file containing a client-side copy of the public key required by the server for RSA key pair-based password exchange. Use when connecting to MySQL 8.0 servers with classic MySQL sessions with SSL mode DISABLED.
  • connect-timeout: The connection timeout in milliseconds. If not provided a default timeout of 10 seconds will be used. Specifying a value of 0 disables the connection timeout.
  • compression: Enable compression in client/server protocol.
  • compression-algorithms: Use compression algorithm in server/client protocol.
  • compression-level: Use this compression level in the client/server protocol.
  • connection-attributes: List of connection attributes to be registered at the PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA connection attributes tables.
  • local-infile: Enable/disable LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE.
  • net-buffer-length: The buffer size for TCP/IP and socket communication.
  • plugin-authentication-kerberos-client-mode: (Windows) Allows defining the kerberos client mode (SSPI, GSSAPI) when using kerberos authentication.
  • oci-config-file: Allows defining the OCI configuration file for OCI authentication.
  • authentication-oci-client-config-profile: Allows defining the OCI profile used from the configuration for client side OCI authentication.

When these options are defined in a URI, their values must be URL encoded.

The following options are also valid when a dictionary is used:

Base Connection Options

  • uri: a URI string.
  • scheme: the protocol to be used on the connection.
  • user: the MySQL user name to be used on the connection.
  • dbUser: alias for user.
  • password: the password to be used on the connection.
  • dbPassword: same as password.
  • host: the hostname or IP address to be used on the connection.
  • port: the port to be used in a TCP connection.
  • socket: the socket file name to be used on a connection through unix sockets.
  • schema: the schema to be selected once the connection is done.

SSH Tunnel Connection Options

  • ssh: a SSHURI string used when SSH tunnel is required.
  • ssh-password: the password the be used on the SSH connection.
  • ssh-identity-file: the key file to be used on the SSH connection.
  • ssh-identity-file-password: the SSH key file password.
  • ssh-config-file: the SSH configuration file, default is the value of shell.options['ssh.configFile']
Attention
The dbUser and dbPassword options are will be removed in a future release.
The connection options have precedence over options specified in the connection options uri

The connection options are case insensitive and can only be defined once.

If an option is defined more than once, an error will be generated.

Detailed description of the connection data format is available at Connection Data

◆ importJson()

Undefined importJson ( String  file,
Dictionary  options 
)

Import JSON documents from file to collection or table in MySQL Server using X Protocol session.

Parameters
filePath to JSON documents file
optionsOptional dictionary with import options

This function reads standard JSON documents from a file, however, it also supports converting BSON Data Types represented using the MongoDB Extended Json (strict mode) into MySQL values.

The options dictionary supports the following options:

  • schema: string - name of target schema.
  • collection: string - name of collection where the data will be imported.
  • table: string - name of table where the data will be imported.
  • tableColumn: string (default: "doc") - name of column in target table where the imported JSON documents will be stored.
  • convertBsonTypes: bool (default: false) - enables the BSON data type conversion.
  • convertBsonOid: bool (default: the value of convertBsonTypes) - enables conversion of the BSON ObjectId values.
  • extractOidTime: string (default: empty) - creates a new field based on the ObjectID timestamp. Only valid if convertBsonOid is enabled.

The following options are valid only when convertBsonTypes is enabled. They are all boolean flags. ignoreRegexOptions is enabled by default, rest are disabled by default.

  • ignoreDate: disables conversion of BSON Date values
  • ignoreTimestamp: disables conversion of BSON Timestamp values
  • ignoreRegex: disables conversion of BSON Regex values.
  • ignoreBinary: disables conversion of BSON BinData values.
  • decimalAsDouble: causes BSON Decimal values to be imported as double values.
  • ignoreRegexOptions: causes regex options to be ignored when processing a Regex BSON value. This option is only valid if ignoreRegex is disabled.

If the schema is not provided, an active schema on the global session, if set, will be used.

The collection and the table options cannot be combined. If they are not provided, the basename of the file without extension will be used as target collection name.

If the target collection or table does not exist, they are created, otherwise the data is inserted into the existing collection or table.

The tableColumn implies the use of the table option and cannot be combined with the collection option.

BSON Data Type Processing.

If only convertBsonOid is enabled, no conversion will be done on the rest of the BSON Data Types.

To use extractOidTime, it should be set to a name which will be used to insert an additional field into the main document. The value of the new field will be the timestamp obtained from the ObjectID value. Note that this will be done only for an ObjectID value associated to the '_id' field of the main document.

NumberLong and NumberInt values will be converted to integer values.

NumberDecimal values are imported as strings, unless decimalAsDouble is enabled.

Regex values will be converted to strings containing the regular expression. The regular expression options are ignored unless ignoreRegexOptions is disabled. When ignoreRegexOptions is disabled the regular expression will be converted to the form: /<regex>/<options>.

Throws ArgumentError when:

  • Option name is invalid
  • Required options are not set and cannot be deduced
  • Shell is not connected to MySQL Server using X Protocol
  • Schema is not provided and there is no active schema on the global session
  • Both collection and table are specified

Throws LogicError when:

  • Path to JSON document does not exists or is not a file

Throws RuntimeError when:

  • The schema does not exists
  • MySQL Server returns an error

Throws InvalidJson when:

  • JSON document is ill-formed

◆ importTable()

Undefined importTable ( List  files,
Dictionary  options 
)

Import table dump stored in files to target table using LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE calls in parallel connections.

Parameters
filesPath or list of paths to files with user data. Path name can contain a glob pattern with wildcard '*' and/or '?'. All selected files must be chunks of the same target table.
optionsOptional dictionary with import options

The scheme part of a filename contains infomation about the transport backend. Supported transport backends are: file://, http://, https://. If the scheme part of a filename is omitted, then file:// transport backend will be chosen.

Supported filename formats:

  • /path/to/file - Path to a locally or remotely (e.g. in OCI Object Storage) accessible file or directory
  • file:///path/to/file - Path to a locally accessible file or directory
  • http[s]://host.domain[:port]/path/to/file - Location of a remote file accessible through HTTP(s) (importTable() only)

If the osBucketName option is given, the path argument must specify a plain path in that OCI (Oracle Cloud Infrastructure) Object Storage bucket.

The OCI configuration profile is located through the oci.profile and oci.configFile global shell options and can be overridden with ociProfile and ociConfigFile, respectively.

If the s3BucketName option is given, the path argument must specify a plain path in that AWS S3 bucket.

If the azureContainerName option is given, the path argument must specify a plain path in that Azure container.

Options dictionary:

  • schema: string (default: current shell active schema) - Name of target schema
  • table: string (default: filename without extension) - Name of target table
  • columns: array of strings and/or integers (default: empty array) - This option takes an array of column names as its value. The order of the column names indicates how to match data file columns with table columns. Use non-negative integer `i` to capture column value into user variable @i. With user variables, the decodeColumns option enables you to perform preprocessing transformations on their values before assigning the result to columns.
  • fieldsTerminatedBy: string (default: "\t") - This option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for LOAD DATA INFILE.
  • fieldsEnclosedBy: char (default: '') - This option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for LOAD DATA INFILE.
  • fieldsEscapedBy: char (default: '\') - This option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for LOAD DATA INFILE.
  • fieldsOptionallyEnclosed: bool (default: false) - Set to true if the input values are not necessarily enclosed within quotation marks specified by fieldsEnclosedBy option. Set to false if all fields are quoted by character specified by fieldsEnclosedBy option.
  • linesTerminatedBy: string (default: "\n") - This option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for LOAD DATA INFILE. For example, to import Windows files that have lines terminated with carriage return/linefeed pairs, use --lines-terminated-by="\r\n". (You might have to double the backslashes, depending on the escaping conventions of your command interpreter.) See Section 13.2.7, "LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax".
  • replaceDuplicates: bool (default: false) - If true, input rows that have the same value for a primary key or unique index as an existing row will be replaced, otherwise input rows will be skipped.
  • threads: int (default: 8) - Use N threads to sent file chunks to the server.
  • bytesPerChunk: string (minimum: "131072", default: "50M") - Send bytesPerChunk (+ bytes to end of the row) in single LOAD DATA call. Unit suffixes, k - for Kilobytes (n * 1'000 bytes), M - for Megabytes (n * 1'000'000 bytes), G - for Gigabytes (n * 1'000'000'000 bytes), bytesPerChunk="2k" - ~2 kilobyte data chunk will send to the MySQL Server. Not available for multiple files import.
  • maxBytesPerTransaction: string (default: empty) - Specifies the maximum number of bytes that can be loaded from a dump data file per single LOAD DATA statement. If a content size of data file is bigger than this option value, then multiple LOAD DATA statements will be executed per single file. If this option is not specified explicitly, dump data file sub-chunking will be disabled. Use this option with value less or equal to global variable 'max_binlog_cache_size' to mitigate "MySQL Error 1197 (HY000): Multi-statement transaction required more than 'max_binlog_cache_size' bytes of storage". Unit suffixes: k (Kilobytes), M (Megabytes), G (Gigabytes). Minimum value: 4096.
  • maxRate: string (default: "0") - Limit data send throughput to maxRate in bytes per second per thread. maxRate="0" - no limit. Unit suffixes, k - for Kilobytes (n * 1'000 bytes), M - for Megabytes (n * 1'000'000 bytes), G - for Gigabytes (n * 1'000'000'000 bytes), maxRate="2k" - limit to 2 kilobytes per second.
  • showProgress: bool (default: true if stdout is a tty, false otherwise) - Enable or disable import progress information.
  • skipRows: int (default: 0) - Skip first N physical lines from each of the imported files. You can use this option to skip an initial header line containing column names.
  • dialect: enum (default: "default") - Setup fields and lines options that matches specific data file format. Can be used as base dialect and customized with fieldsTerminatedBy, fieldsEnclosedBy, fieldsOptionallyEnclosed, fieldsEscapedBy and linesTerminatedBy options. Must be one of the following values: default, csv, tsv, json or csv-unix.
  • decodeColumns: map (default: not set) - a map between columns names and SQL expressions to be applied on the loaded data. Column value captured in 'columns' by integer is available as user variable '@i', where `i` is that integer. Requires 'columns' to be set.
  • characterSet: string (default: not set) - Interpret the information in the input file using this character set encoding. characterSet set to "binary" specifies "no conversion". If not set, the server will use the character set indicated by the character_set_database system variable to interpret the information in the file.
  • sessionInitSql: list of strings (default: []) - execute the given list of SQL statements in each session about to load data.

OCI Object Storage Options

  • osBucketName: string (default: not set) - Name of the OCI Object Storage bucket to use. The bucket must already exist.
  • osNamespace: string (default: not set) - Specifies the namespace where the bucket is located, if not given it will be obtained using the tenancy id on the OCI configuration.
  • ociConfigFile: string (default: not set) - Override oci.configFile shell option, to specify the path to the OCI configuration file.
  • ociProfile: string (default: not set) - Override oci.profile shell option, to specify the name of the OCI profile to use.

AWS S3 Object Storage Options

  • s3BucketName: string (default: not set) - Name of the AWS S3 bucket to use. The bucket must already exist.
  • s3CredentialsFile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS credentials file.
  • s3ConfigFile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS config file.
  • s3Profile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS profile.
  • s3Region: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS region.
  • s3EndpointOverride: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS S3 API endpoint instead of the default one.

If the s3BucketName option is used, the dump is stored in the specified AWS S3 bucket. Connection is established using default local AWS configuration paths and profiles, unless overridden. The directory structure is simulated within the object name.

The s3CredentialsFile, s3ConfigFile, s3Profile, s3Region and s3EndpointOverride options cannot be used if the s3BucketName option is not set or set to an empty string.

Handling of the AWS settings

The AWS options are evaluated in the order of precedence, the first available value is used.

  1. Name of the AWS profile:
    • the s3Profile option
    • the AWS_PROFILE environment variable
    • the AWS_DEFAULT_PROFILE environment variable
    • the default value of default
  2. Location of the credentials file:
    • the s3CredentialsFile option
    • the AWS_SHARED_CREDENTIALS_FILE environment variable
    • the default value of ~/.aws/credentials
  3. Location of the config file:
    • the s3ConfigFile option
    • the AWS_CONFIG_FILE environment variable
    • the default value of ~/.aws/config
  4. Name of the AWS region:
    • the s3Region option
    • the AWS_REGION environment variable
    • the AWS_DEFAULT_REGION environment variable
    • the region setting from the config file for the specified profile
    • the default value of us-east-1
  5. URI of AWS S3 API endpoint
    • the s3EndpointOverride option
    • the default value of https://<s3BucketName>.s3.<region>.amazonaws.com

The AWS credentials are fetched from the following providers, in the order of precedence:

  1. Environment variables:
    • AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID
    • AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY
    • AWS_SESSION_TOKEN
  2. Settings from the credentials file for the specified profile:
    • aws_access_key_id
    • aws_secret_access_key
    • aws_session_token
  3. Process specified by the credential_process setting from the config file for the specified profile:
    • AccessKeyId
    • SecretAccessKey
    • SessionToken
  4. Settings from the config file for the specified profile:
    • aws_access_key_id
    • aws_secret_access_key
    • aws_session_token

The items specified above correspond to the following credentials:

  • the AWS access key
  • the secret key associated with the AWS access key
  • the AWS session token for the temporary security credentials

The process/command line specified by the credential_process setting must write a JSON object to the standard output in the following form:

{
"Version": 1,
"AccessKeyId": "AWS access key",
"SecretAccessKey": "secret key associated with the AWS access key",
"SessionToken": "temporary AWS session token, optional",
"Expiration": "RFC3339 timestamp, optional"
}

The Expiration key, if given, specifies when the credentials are going to expire, they will be automatically refreshed before this happens.

The following credential handling rules apply:

  • If the s3Profile option is set to a non-empty string, the environment variables are not used as a potential credential provider.
  • If either an access key or a secret key is available in a potential credential provider, it is selected as the credential provider.
  • If either the access key or the secret key is missing in the selected credential provider, an exception is thrown.
  • If the session token is missing in the selected credential provider, or if it is set to an empty string, it is not used to authenticate the user.

Azure Blob Storage Options

  • azureContainerName: string (default: not set) - Name of the Azure container to use. The container must already exist.
  • azureConfigFile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified Azure configuration file instead of the one at the default location.
  • azureStorageAccount: string (default: not set) - The account to be used for the operation.
  • azureStorageSasToken: string (default: not set) - Azure Shared Access Signature (SAS) token, to be used for the authentication of the operation, instead of a key.

If the azureContainerName option is used, the dump is stored in the specified Azure container. Connection is established using the configuration at the local Azure configuration file.The directory structure is simulated within the blob name.

The azureConfigFile option cannot be used if the azureContainerName option is not set or set to an empty string.

Handling of the Azure settings

  1. The following settings are read from the storage section in the config file:
    • connection_string
    • account
    • key
    • sas_token
    Additionally, the connection options may be defined using the standard Azure environment variables:
    • AZURE_STORAGE_CONNECTION_STRING
    • AZURE_STORAGE_ACCOUNT
    • AZURE_STORAGE_KEY
    • AZURE_STORAGE_SAS_TOKEN
    The Azure configuration values are evaluated in the following precedence:
  • Options parameter
  • Environment Variables
  • Configuration File

If a connection string is defined either case in the environment variable or the configuration option, the individual configuration values for account and key will be ignored.

If a SAS Token is defined, it will be used for the authorization (ignoring any defined account key).

The default Azure Blob Endpoint to be used in the operations is defined by:

https://<account>.blob.core.windows.net

Unless a different EndPoint is defined in the connection string.

dialect predefines following set of options fieldsTerminatedBy (FT), fieldsEnclosedBy (FE), fieldsOptionallyEnclosed (FOE), fieldsEscapedBy (FESC) and linesTerminatedBy (LT) in following manner:

  • default: no quoting, tab-separated, lf line endings. (LT=<LF>, FESC='\', FT=<TAB>, FE=<empty>, FOE=false)
  • csv: optionally quoted, comma-separated, crlf line endings. (LT=<CR><LF>, FESC='\', FT=",", FE='"', FOE=true)
  • tsv: optionally quoted, tab-separated, crlf line endings. (LT=<CR><LF>, FESC='\', FT=<TAB>, FE='"', FOE=true)
  • json: one JSON document per line. (LT=<LF>, FESC=<empty>, FT=<LF>, FE=<empty>, FOE=false)
  • csv-unix: fully quoted, comma-separated, lf line endings. (LT=<LF>, FESC='\', FT=",", FE='"', FOE=false)

If the schema is not provided, an active schema on the global session, if set, will be used.

If the input values are not necessarily enclosed within fieldsEnclosedBy, set fieldsOptionallyEnclosed to true.

If you specify one separator that is the same as or a prefix of another, LOAD DATA INFILE cannot interpret the input properly.

Connection options set in the global session, such as compression, ssl-mode, etc. are used in parallel connections.

Each parallel connection sets the following session variables:

  • SET SQL_MODE = ''; -- Clear SQL Mode
  • SET NAMES ?; -- Set to characterSet option if provided by user.
  • SET unique_checks = 0
  • SET foreign_key_checks = 0
  • SET SESSION TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL READ UNCOMMITTED

Note: because of storage engine limitations, table locks held by MyISAM will cause imports of such tables to be sequential, regardless of the number of threads used.

Example input data for dialects:

  • default:
    1<TAB>20.1000<TAB>foo said: "Where is my bar?"<LF>
    2<TAB>-12.5000<TAB>baz said: "Where is my <TAB> char?"<LF>
  • csv:
    1,20.1000,"foo said: \"Where is my bar?\""<CR><LF>
    2,-12.5000,"baz said: \"Where is my <TAB> char?\""<CR><LF>
  • tsv:
    1<TAB>20.1000<TAB>"foo said: \"Where is my bar?\""<CR><LF>
    2<TAB>-12.5000<TAB>"baz said: \"Where is my <TAB> char?\""<CR><LF>
  • json:
    {"id_int": 1, "value_float": 20.1000, "text_text": "foo said: \"Where is my
    bar?\""}<LF>
    {"id_int": 2, "value_float": -12.5000, "text_text": "baz said: \"Where is my
    \u000b char?\""}<LF>
  • csv-unix:
    "1","20.1000","foo said: \"Where is my bar?\""<LF>
    "2","-12.5000","baz said: \"Where is my <TAB> char?\""<LF>

Examples of decodeColumns usage:

  • Preprocess column2:
    util.importTable('file.txt', {
    table: 't1',
    columns: ['column1', 1],
    decodeColumns: {'column2': '@1 / 100'}
    });
    is equivalent to:
    LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE 'file.txt'
    INTO TABLE `t1` (column1, @var1)
    SET `column2` = @var/100;
  • Skip columns:
    util.importTable('file.txt', {
    table: 't1',
    columns: ['column1', 1, 'column2', 2, 'column3']
    });
    is equivalent to:
    LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE 'file.txt'
    INTO TABLE `t1` (column1, @1, column2, @2, column3);
  • Generate values for columns:
    util.importTable('file.txt', {
    table: 't1',
    columns: [1, 2],
    decodeColumns: {
    'a': '@1',
    'b': '@2',
    'sum': '@1 + @2',
    'mul': '@1 * @2',
    'pow': 'POW(@1, @2)'
    }
    });
    is equivalent to:
    LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE 'file.txt'
    INTO TABLE `t1` (@1, @2)
    SET
    `a` = @1,
    `b` = @2,
    `sum` = @1 + @2,
    `mul` = @1 * @2,
    `pow` = POW(@1, @2);

◆ loadDump()

Undefined loadDump ( String  url,
Dictionary  options 
)

Loads database dumps created by MySQL Shell.

Parameters
urldefines the location of the dump to be loaded
optionsOptional dictionary with load options

Depending on how the dump was created, the url identifies the location and in some cases the access method to the dump, i.e. for dumps to be loaded using pre-authenticated requests (PAR). Allowed values:

  • /path/to/folder - to load a dump from local storage
  • /oci/bucket/path - to load a dump from OCI Object Storage using an OCI profile
  • /aws/bucket/path - to load a dump from AWS S3 Object Storage using the AWS settings stored in the credentials and config files
  • PAR to the dump manifest - to load a dump from OCI Object Storage created with the ociParManifest option
  • PAR to the dump location - to load a dump from OCI Object Storage using a single PAR

loadDump() will load a dump from the specified path. It transparently handles compressed files and directly streams data when loading from remote storage (currently HTTP, OCI Object Storage, AWS S3 Object Storage and Azure Containers). If the 'waitDumpTimeout' option is set, it will load a dump on-the-fly, loading table data chunks as the dumper produces them.

Table data will be loaded in parallel using the configured number of threads (4 by default). Multiple threads per table can be used if the dump was created with table chunking enabled. Data loads are scheduled across threads in a way that tries to maximize parallelism, while also minimizing lock contention from concurrent loads to the same table. If there are more tables than threads, different tables will be loaded per thread, larger tables first. If there are more threads than tables, then chunks from larger tables will be proportionally assigned more threads.

LOAD DATA LOCAL INFILE is used to load table data and thus, the 'local_infile' MySQL global setting must be enabled.

Resuming

The load command will store progress information into a file for each step of the loading process, including successfully completed and interrupted/failed ones. If that file already exists, its contents will be used to skip steps that have already been completed and retry those that failed or didn't start yet.

When resuming, table chunks that have started being loaded but didn't finish are loaded again. Duplicate rows are discarded by the server. Tables that do not have unique keys are truncated before the load is resumed.

IMPORTANT: Resuming assumes that no changes have been made to the partially loaded data between the failure and the retry. Resuming after external changes has undefined behavior and may lead to data loss.

The progress state file has a default name of load-progress.<server_uuid>.json and is written to the same location as the dump. If 'progressFile' is specified, progress will be written to either a local file at the given path, or, if the HTTP(S) scheme is used, to a remote file using HTTP PUT requests. Setting it to '' will disable progress tracking and resuming.

If the 'resetProgress' option is enabled, progress information from previous load attempts of the dump to the destination server is discarded and the load is restarted. You may use this option to retry loading the whole dump from the beginning. However, changes made to the database are not reverted, so previously loaded objects should be manually dropped first.

Options dictionary:

  • analyzeTables: "off", "on", "histogram" (default: off) - If 'on', executes ANALYZE TABLE for all tables, once loaded. If set to 'histogram', only tables that have histogram information stored in the dump will be analyzed. This option can be used even if all 'load' options are disabled.
  • backgroundThreads: int (default not set) - Number of additional threads to use to fetch contents of metadata and DDL files. If not set, loader will use the value of the threads option in case of a local dump, or four times that value in case on a non-local dump.
  • characterSet: string (default taken from dump) - Overrides the character set to be used for loading dump data. By default, the same character set used for dumping will be used (utf8mb4 if not set on dump).
  • checksum: bool (default: false) - Verify tables against checksums that were computed during dump.
  • createInvisiblePKs: bool (default taken from dump) - Automatically create an invisible Primary Key for each table which does not have one. By default, set to true if dump was created with create_invisible_pks compatibility option, false otherwise. Requires server 8.0.24 or newer.
  • deferTableIndexes: "off", "fulltext", "all" (default: fulltext) - If "all", creation of "all" indexes except PRIMARY is deferred until after table data is loaded, which in many cases can reduce load times. If "fulltext", only full-text indexes will be deferred.
  • dryRun: bool (default: false) - Scans the dump and prints everything that would be performed, without actually doing so.
  • excludeEvents: array of strings (default not set) - Skip loading specified events from the dump. Strings are in format schema.event, quoted using backtick characters when required.
  • excludeRoutines: array of strings (default not set) - Skip loading specified routines from the dump. Strings are in format schema.routine, quoted using backtick characters when required.
  • excludeSchemas: array of strings (default not set) - Skip loading specified schemas from the dump.
  • excludeTables: array of strings (default not set) - Skip loading specified tables from the dump. Strings are in format schema.table, quoted using backtick characters when required.
  • excludeTriggers: array of strings (default not set) - Skip loading specified triggers from the dump. Strings are in format schema.table (all triggers from the specified table) or schema.table.trigger (the individual trigger), quoted using backtick characters when required.
  • excludeUsers: array of strings (default not set) - Skip loading specified users from the dump. Each user is in the format of 'user_name'[@'host']. If the host is not specified, all the accounts with the given user name are excluded.
  • handleGrantErrors: "abort", "drop_account", "ignore" (default: abort)
    • Specifies action to be performed in case of errors related to the GRANT/REVOKE statements, "abort": throws an error and aborts the load, "drop_account": deletes the problematic account and continues, "ignore": ignores the error and continues loading the account.
  • ignoreExistingObjects: bool (default false) - Load the dump even if it contains user accounts or DDL objects that already exist in the target database. If this option is set to false, any existing object results in an error. Setting it to true ignores existing objects, but the CREATE statements are still going to be executed, except for the tables and views.
  • ignoreVersion: bool (default false) - Load the dump even if the major version number of the server where it was created is different from where it will be loaded.
  • includeEvents: array of strings (default not set) - Loads only the specified events from the dump. Strings are in format schema.event, quoted using backtick characters when required. By default, all events are included.
  • includeRoutines: array of strings (default not set) - Loads only the specified routines from the dump. Strings are in format schema.routine, quoted using backtick characters when required. By default, all routines are included.
  • includeSchemas: array of strings (default not set) - Loads only the specified schemas from the dump. By default, all schemas are included.
  • includeTables: array of strings (default not set) - Loads only the specified tables from the dump. Strings are in format schema.table, quoted using backtick characters when required. By default, all tables from all schemas are included.
  • includeTriggers: array of strings (default not set) - Loads only the specified triggers from the dump. Strings are in format schema.table (all triggers from the specified table) or schema.table.trigger (the individual trigger), quoted using backtick characters when required. By default, all triggers are included.
  • includeUsers: array of strings (default not set) - Load only the specified users from the dump. Each user is in the format of 'user_name'[@'host']. If the host is not specified, all the accounts with the given user name are included. By default, all users are included.
  • loadData: bool (default: true) - Loads table data from the dump.
  • loadDdl: bool (default: true) - Executes DDL/SQL scripts in the dump.
  • loadIndexes: bool (default: true) - use together with deferTableIndexes to control whether secondary indexes should be recreated at the end of the load. Useful when loading DDL and data separately.
  • loadUsers: bool (default: false) - Executes SQL scripts for user accounts, roles and grants contained in the dump. Note: statements for the current user will be skipped.
  • maxBytesPerTransaction: string (default taken from dump) - Specifies the maximum number of bytes that can be loaded from a dump data file per single LOAD DATA statement. Supports unit suffixes: k (kilobytes), M (Megabytes), G (Gigabytes). Minimum value: 4096. If this option is not specified explicitly, the value of the bytesPerChunk dump option is used, but only in case of the files with data size greater than 1.5 * bytesPerChunk.
  • progressFile: path (default: load-progress.<server_uuid>.progress)
    • Stores load progress information in the given local file path.
  • resetProgress: bool (default: false) - Discards progress information of previous load attempts to the destination server and loads the whole dump again.
  • schema: string (default not set) - Load the dump into the given schema. This option can only be used when loading just one schema, (either only one schema was dumped, or schema filters result in only one schema).
  • sessionInitSql: list of strings (default: []) - execute the given list of SQL statements in each session about to load data.
  • showMetadata: bool (default: false) - Displays the metadata information stored in the dump files, i.e. binary log file name and position.
  • showProgress: bool (default: true if stdout is a tty, false otherwise) - Enable or disable import progress information.
  • skipBinlog: bool (default: false) - Disables the binary log for the MySQL sessions used by the loader (set sql_log_bin=0).
  • threads: int (default: 4) - Number of threads to use to import table data.
  • updateGtidSet: "off", "replace", "append" (default: off) - if set to a value other than 'off' updates GTID_PURGED by either replacing its contents or appending to it the gtid set present in the dump.
  • waitDumpTimeout: float (default: 0) - Loads a dump while it's still being created. Once all uploaded tables are processed the command will either wait for more data, the dump is marked as completed or the given timeout (in seconds) passes. <= 0 disables waiting.
  • sessionInitSql: list of strings (default: []) - execute the given list of SQL statements in each session about to load data.
  • osBucketName: string (default: not set) - Use specified OCI bucket for the location of the dump.
  • osNamespace: string (default: not set) - Specifies the namespace where the bucket is located, if not given it will be obtained using the tenancy id on the OCI configuration.
  • ociConfigFile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified OCI configuration file instead of the one at the default location.
  • ociProfile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified OCI profile instead of the default one.
  • s3BucketName: string (default: not set) - Name of the AWS S3 bucket to use. The bucket must already exist.
  • s3CredentialsFile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS credentials file.
  • s3ConfigFile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS config file.
  • s3Profile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS profile.
  • s3Region: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS region.
  • s3EndpointOverride: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS S3 API endpoint instead of the default one.
  • azureContainerName: string (default: not set) - Name of the Azure container to use. The container must already exist.
  • azureConfigFile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified Azure configuration file instead of the one at the default location.
  • azureStorageAccount: string (default: not set) - The account to be used for the operation.
  • azureStorageSasToken: string (default: not set) - Azure Shared Access Signature (SAS) token, to be used for the authentication of the operation, instead of a key.

Connection options set in the global session, such as compression, ssl-mode, etc. are inherited by load sessions.

Examples:

util.loadDump('sakila_dump')
util.loadDump('mysql/sales', {
'osBucketName': 'mybucket', // OCI Object Storage bucket
'waitDumpTimeout': 1800 // wait for new data for up to 30mins
})

Loading a dump using Pre-authenticated Requests (PAR)

When a dump is created in OCI Object Storage, it is possible to load it using a single pre-authenticated request which gives access to the location of the dump. The requirements for this PAR include:

  • Permits object reads
  • Enables object listing

Given a dump located at a bucket root and a PAR created for the bucket, the dump can be loaded by providing the PAR as the url parameter:

Example:

Dump Location: root of 'test' bucket
uri = 'https://*.objectstorage.*.oci.customer-oci.com/p/*/n/*/b/test/o/'
util.loadDump(uri, { 'progressFile': 'load_progress.txt' })

Given a dump located at some folder within a bucket and a PAR created for the given folder, the dump can be loaded by providing the PAR and the prefix as the url parameter:

Example:

Dump Location: folder 'dump' at the 'test' bucket
PAR created using the 'dump/' prefix.
uri = 'https://*.objectstorage.*.oci.customer-oci.com/p/*/n/*/b/test/o/dump/'
util.loadDump(uri, { 'progressFile': 'load_progress.txt' })

In both of the above cases the load is done using pure HTTP GET requests and the progressFile option is mandatory.

A legacy method to create a dump loadable through PAR is still supported, this is done by using the ociParManifest option when creating the dump. When this is enabled, a manifest file "@.manifest.json" will be generated, to be used as the entry point to load the dump using a PAR to this file.

When using a Manifest PAR to load a dump, the progressFile option is mandatory.

To store the progress on dump location, create an ObjectReadWrite PAR to the desired progress file (it does not need to exist), it should be located on the same location of the "@.manifest.json" file. Finally specify the PAR URL on the progressFile option.

Example:

Dump Location: root of 'test' bucket:
uri = 'https://*.objectstorage.*.oci.customer-oci.com/p/*/n/*/b/test/o/@.manifest.json'
util.loadDump(uri, { 'progressFile': 'load_progress.txt' })

◆ exportTable()

Undefined exportTable ( String  table,
String  outputUrl,
Dictionary  options 
)

Exports the specified table to the data dump file.

Parameters
tableName of the table to be exported.
outputUrlTarget file to store the data.
optionsOptional dictionary with the export options.

The value of table parameter should be in form of table or schema.table, quoted using backtick characters when required. If schema is omitted, an active schema on the global Shell session is used. If there is none, an exception is raised.

The outputUrl specifies where the dump is going to be stored.

By default, a local file is used, and in this case outputUrl can be prefixed with file:// scheme. If a relative path is given, the absolute path is computed as relative to the current working directory. The parent directory of the output file must exist. If the output file exists, it is going to be overwritten. The output file is created with the following access rights (on operating systems which support them): rw-r-----.

The following options are supported:

  • where: string (default: not set) - A valid SQL condition expression used to filter the data being exported.
  • partitions: list of strings (default: not set) - A list of valid partition names used to limit the data export to just the specified partitions.
  • fieldsTerminatedBy: string (default: "\t") - This option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE.
  • fieldsEnclosedBy: char (default: '') - This option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE.
  • fieldsEscapedBy: char (default: '\') - This option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE.
  • fieldsOptionallyEnclosed: bool (default: false) - Set to true if the input values are not necessarily enclosed within quotation marks specified by fieldsEnclosedBy option. Set to false if all fields are quoted by character specified by fieldsEnclosedBy option.
  • linesTerminatedBy: string (default: "\n") - This option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE. See Section 13.2.10.1, "SELECT ... INTO Statement".
  • dialect: enum (default: "default") - Setup fields and lines options that matches specific data file format. Can be used as base dialect and customized with fieldsTerminatedBy, fieldsEnclosedBy, fieldsEscapedBy, fieldsOptionallyEnclosed and linesTerminatedBy options. Must be one of the following values: default, csv, tsv or csv-unix.
  • maxRate: string (default: "0") - Limit data read throughput to maximum rate, measured in bytes per second per thread. Use maxRate="0" to set no limit.
  • showProgress: bool (default: true if stdout is a TTY device, false otherwise) - Enable or disable dump progress information.
  • defaultCharacterSet: string (default: "utf8mb4") - Character set used for the dump.
  • compression: string (default: "none") - Compression used when writing the data dump files, one of: "none", "gzip", "zstd".
  • osBucketName: string (default: not set) - Use specified OCI bucket for the location of the dump.
  • osNamespace: string (default: not set) - Specifies the namespace where the bucket is located, if not given it will be obtained using the tenancy id on the OCI configuration.
  • ociConfigFile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified OCI configuration file instead of the one at the default location.
  • ociProfile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified OCI profile instead of the default one.
  • s3BucketName: string (default: not set) - Name of the AWS S3 bucket to use. The bucket must already exist.
  • s3CredentialsFile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS credentials file.
  • s3ConfigFile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS config file.
  • s3Profile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS profile.
  • s3Region: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS region.
  • s3EndpointOverride: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS S3 API endpoint instead of the default one.
  • azureContainerName: string (default: not set) - Name of the Azure container to use. The container must already exist.
  • azureConfigFile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified Azure configuration file instead of the one at the default location.
  • azureStorageAccount: string (default: not set) - The account to be used for the operation.
  • azureStorageSasToken: string (default: not set) - Azure Shared Access Signature (SAS) token, to be used for the authentication of the operation, instead of a key.

Requirements

  • MySQL Server 5.7 or newer is required.
  • Size limit for individual files uploaded to the OCI or AWS S3 bucket is 1.2 TiB.
  • Columns with data types which are not safe to be stored in text form (i.e. BLOB) are converted to Base64, hence the size of such columns cannot exceed approximately 0.74 * max_allowed_packet bytes, as configured through that system variable at the target server.

Details

This operation writes table data dump to the specified by the user files.

Requires an open, global Shell session, and uses its connection options, such as compression, ssl-mode, etc., to establish additional connections.

Options

The dialect option predefines the set of options fieldsTerminatedBy (FT), fieldsEnclosedBy (FE), fieldsOptionallyEnclosed (FOE), fieldsEscapedBy (FESC) and linesTerminatedBy (LT) in the following manner:

  • default: no quoting, tab-separated, LF line endings. (LT=<LF>, FESC='\', FT=<TAB>, FE=<empty>, FOE=false)
  • csv: optionally quoted, comma-separated, CRLF line endings. (LT=<CR><LF>, FESC='\', FT=",", FE='"', FOE=true)
  • tsv: optionally quoted, tab-separated, CRLF line endings. (LT=<CR><LF>, FESC='\', FT=<TAB>, FE='"', FOE=true)
  • csv-unix: fully quoted, comma-separated, LF line endings. (LT=<LF>, FESC='\', FT=",", FE='"', FOE=false)

The maxRate option supports unit suffixes:

  • k - for kilobytes,
  • M - for Megabytes,
  • G - for Gigabytes,

i.e. maxRate="2k" - limit throughput to 2000 bytes per second.

Dumping to a Bucket in the OCI Object Storage

There are 2 ways to create a dump in OCI Object Storage:

  • By using the standard client OCI configuration.
  • By using a Pre-Authenticated Request (PAR).

Dumping to OCI Object Storage using the client OCI configuration

The osBucketName option is used to indicate the connection is established using the locally configured OCI client profile.

If the osBucketName option is used, the dump is stored in the specified OCI bucket, connection is established using the local OCI profile. The directory structure is simulated within the object name.

The osNamespace, ociConfigFile and ociProfile options cannot be used if the osBucketName option is set to an empty string.

The osNamespace option overrides the OCI namespace obtained based on the tenancy ID from the local OCI profile.

Dumping to OCI Object Storage using Pre-Authenticated Request (PAR)

When using a PAR to create a dump, no client OCI configuration is needed to perform the dump operation. A bucket or prefix PAR with the following access types is required to perform a dump with this method:

  • Permit object reads and writes.
  • Enable object listing.

When using a bucket PAR, the generated PAR URL should be used as the output_url argument for the dump operation. i.e. the following is a bucket PAR to create dump at the root folder of the 'test' bucket:

https://*.objectstorage.*.oci.customer-oci.com/p/*/n/*/b/test/o/

When using a prefix PAR, the output_url argument should contain the PAR URL itself and the prefix used to generate it. i.e. the following is a prefix PAR to create a dump at the 'dump' folder of the 'test' bucket. The PAR was created using 'dump' as prefix:

https://*.objectstorage.*.oci.customer-oci.com/p/*/n/*/b/test/o/dump/

Note that both the bucket and the prefix PAR URLs must end with a slash, otherwise it will be considered invalid.

When using a PAR, a temporary directory is created to be used as staging area; each file is initially buffered to disk and then sent to the target bucket, deleting it when it is transferred.

This will be done on the system temporary directory, defined by any of the following environment variables:

  • POSIX: TMPDIR, TMP, TEMP, TEMPDIR. If none is defined, uses /tmp.
  • Windows: TMP, TEMP, USERPROFILE. If none is defined, uses the Windows directory.

Dumping to a Bucket in the AWS S3 Object Storage

If the s3BucketName option is used, the dump is stored in the specified AWS S3 bucket. Connection is established using default local AWS configuration paths and profiles, unless overridden. The directory structure is simulated within the object name.

The s3CredentialsFile, s3ConfigFile, s3Profile, s3Region and s3EndpointOverride options cannot be used if the s3BucketName option is not set or set to an empty string.

Handling of the AWS settings

The AWS options are evaluated in the order of precedence, the first available value is used.

  1. Name of the AWS profile:
    • the s3Profile option
    • the AWS_PROFILE environment variable
    • the AWS_DEFAULT_PROFILE environment variable
    • the default value of default
  2. Location of the credentials file:
    • the s3CredentialsFile option
    • the AWS_SHARED_CREDENTIALS_FILE environment variable
    • the default value of ~/.aws/credentials
  3. Location of the config file:
    • the s3ConfigFile option
    • the AWS_CONFIG_FILE environment variable
    • the default value of ~/.aws/config
  4. Name of the AWS region:
    • the s3Region option
    • the AWS_REGION environment variable
    • the AWS_DEFAULT_REGION environment variable
    • the region setting from the config file for the specified profile
    • the default value of us-east-1
  5. URI of AWS S3 API endpoint
    • the s3EndpointOverride option
    • the default value of https://<s3BucketName>.s3.<region>.amazonaws.com

The AWS credentials are fetched from the following providers, in the order of precedence:

  1. Environment variables:
    • AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID
    • AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY
    • AWS_SESSION_TOKEN
  2. Settings from the credentials file for the specified profile:
    • aws_access_key_id
    • aws_secret_access_key
    • aws_session_token
  3. Process specified by the credential_process setting from the config file for the specified profile:
    • AccessKeyId
    • SecretAccessKey
    • SessionToken
  4. Settings from the config file for the specified profile:
    • aws_access_key_id
    • aws_secret_access_key
    • aws_session_token

The items specified above correspond to the following credentials:

  • the AWS access key
  • the secret key associated with the AWS access key
  • the AWS session token for the temporary security credentials

The process/command line specified by the credential_process setting must write a JSON object to the standard output in the following form:

{
"Version": 1,
"AccessKeyId": "AWS access key",
"SecretAccessKey": "secret key associated with the AWS access key",
"SessionToken": "temporary AWS session token, optional",
"Expiration": "RFC3339 timestamp, optional"
}

The Expiration key, if given, specifies when the credentials are going to expire, they will be automatically refreshed before this happens.

The following credential handling rules apply:

  • If the s3Profile option is set to a non-empty string, the environment variables are not used as a potential credential provider.
  • If either an access key or a secret key is available in a potential credential provider, it is selected as the credential provider.
  • If either the access key or the secret key is missing in the selected credential provider, an exception is thrown.
  • If the session token is missing in the selected credential provider, or if it is set to an empty string, it is not used to authenticate the user.

Dumping to a Container in the Azure Blob Storage

If the azureContainerName option is used, the dump is stored in the specified Azure container. Connection is established using the configuration at the local Azure configuration file.The directory structure is simulated within the blob name.

The azureConfigFile option cannot be used if the azureContainerName option is not set or set to an empty string.

Handling of the Azure settings

  1. The following settings are read from the storage section in the config file:
    • connection_string
    • account
    • key
    • sas_token
    Additionally, the connection options may be defined using the standard Azure environment variables:
    • AZURE_STORAGE_CONNECTION_STRING
    • AZURE_STORAGE_ACCOUNT
    • AZURE_STORAGE_KEY
    • AZURE_STORAGE_SAS_TOKEN
    The Azure configuration values are evaluated in the following precedence:
  • Options parameter
  • Environment Variables
  • Configuration File

If a connection string is defined either case in the environment variable or the configuration option, the individual configuration values for account and key will be ignored.

If a SAS Token is defined, it will be used for the authorization (ignoring any defined account key).

The default Azure Blob Endpoint to be used in the operations is defined by:

https://<account>.blob.core.windows.net

Unless a different EndPoint is defined in the connection string.

Exceptions
ArgumentErrorin the following scenarios:
  • If any of the input arguments contains an invalid value.
RuntimeErrorin the following scenarios:
  • If there is no open global session.
  • If creating or writing to the output file fails.

◆ dumpTables()

Undefined dumpTables ( String  schema,
List  tables,
String  outputUrl,
Dictionary  options 
)

Dumps the specified tables or views from the given schema to the files in the target directory.

Parameters
schemaName of the schema that contains tables/views to be dumped.
tablesList of tables/views to be dumped.
outputUrlTarget directory to store the dump files.
optionsOptional dictionary with the dump options.

The tables parameter cannot be an empty list.

The outputUrl specifies where the dump is going to be stored.

The value for this parameter can be either:

  • The path to the target location in a local filesystem or one of the supported cloud storage buckets
  • A Pre-Authenticated Request (PAR) to a bucket in OCI Object Storage

By default, a local directory is used, and in this case outputUrl can be prefixed with file:// scheme. If a relative path is given, the absolute path is computed as relative to the current working directory. If the output directory does not exist but its parent does, it is created. If the output directory exists, it must be empty. All directories are created with the following access rights (on operating systems which support them): rwxr-x---. All files are created with the following access rights (on operating systems which support them): rw-r-----.

For additional details on using PARs see the Dumping to OCI Object Storage using Pre-Authenticated Request (PAR) section.

The following options are supported:

  • all: bool (default: false) - Dump all views and tables from the specified schema.
  • ocimds: bool (default: false) - Enable checks for compatibility with MySQL HeatWave Service.
  • compatibility: list of strings (default: empty) - Apply MySQL HeatWave Service compatibility modifications when writing dump files. Supported values: "create_invisible_pks", "force_innodb", "ignore_missing_pks", "ignore_wildcard_grants", "skip_invalid_accounts", "strip_definers", "strip_invalid_grants", "strip_restricted_grants", "strip_tablespaces".
  • targetVersion: string (default: current version of Shell) - Specifies version of the destination MySQL server.
  • triggers: bool (default: true) - Include triggers for each dumped table.
  • excludeTriggers: list of strings (default: empty) - List of triggers to be excluded from the dump in the format of schema.table (all triggers from the specified table) or schema.table.trigger (the individual trigger).
  • includeTriggers: list of strings (default: empty) - List of triggers to be included in the dump in the format of schema.table (all triggers from the specified table) or schema.table.trigger (the individual trigger).
  • where: dictionary (default: not set) - A key-value pair of a table name in the format of schema.table and a valid SQL condition expression used to filter the data being exported.
  • partitions: dictionary (default: not set) - A key-value pair of a table name in the format of schema.table and a list of valid partition names used to limit the data export to just the specified partitions.
  • tzUtc: bool (default: true) - Convert TIMESTAMP data to UTC.
  • consistent: bool (default: true) - Enable or disable consistent data dumps. When enabled, produces a transactionally consistent dump at a specific point in time.
  • skipConsistencyChecks: bool (default: false) - Skips additional consistency checks which are executed when running consistent dumps and i.e. backup lock cannot not be acquired.
  • ddlOnly: bool (default: false) - Only dump Data Definition Language (DDL) from the database.
  • dataOnly: bool (default: false) - Only dump data from the database.
  • checksum: bool (default: false) - Compute and include checksum of the dumped data.
  • dryRun: bool (default: false) - Print information about what would be dumped, but do not dump anything. If ocimds is enabled, also checks for compatibility issues with MySQL HeatWave Service.
  • chunking: bool (default: true) - Enable chunking of the tables.
  • bytesPerChunk: string (default: "64M") - Sets average estimated number of bytes to be written to each chunk file, enables chunking.
  • threads: int (default: 4) - Use N threads to dump data chunks from the server.
  • fieldsTerminatedBy: string (default: "\t") - This option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE.
  • fieldsEnclosedBy: char (default: '') - This option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE.
  • fieldsEscapedBy: char (default: '\') - This option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE.
  • fieldsOptionallyEnclosed: bool (default: false) - Set to true if the input values are not necessarily enclosed within quotation marks specified by fieldsEnclosedBy option. Set to false if all fields are quoted by character specified by fieldsEnclosedBy option.
  • linesTerminatedBy: string (default: "\n") - This option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE. See Section 13.2.10.1, "SELECT ... INTO Statement".
  • dialect: enum (default: "default") - Setup fields and lines options that matches specific data file format. Can be used as base dialect and customized with fieldsTerminatedBy, fieldsEnclosedBy, fieldsEscapedBy, fieldsOptionallyEnclosed and linesTerminatedBy options. Must be one of the following values: default, csv, tsv or csv-unix.
  • maxRate: string (default: "0") - Limit data read throughput to maximum rate, measured in bytes per second per thread. Use maxRate="0" to set no limit.
  • showProgress: bool (default: true if stdout is a TTY device, false otherwise) - Enable or disable dump progress information.
  • defaultCharacterSet: string (default: "utf8mb4") - Character set used for the dump.
  • compression: string (default: "zstd") - Compression used when writing the data dump files, one of: "none", "gzip", "zstd".
  • osBucketName: string (default: not set) - Use specified OCI bucket for the location of the dump.
  • osNamespace: string (default: not set) - Specifies the namespace where the bucket is located, if not given it will be obtained using the tenancy id on the OCI configuration.
  • ociConfigFile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified OCI configuration file instead of the one at the default location.
  • ociProfile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified OCI profile instead of the default one.
  • ociParManifest: bool (default: not set) - Enables the generation of the PAR manifest while the dump operation is being executed. Deprecated.
  • ociParExpireTime: string (default: not set) - Allows defining the expiration time for the PARs generated when ociParManifest is enabled. Deprecated.
  • s3BucketName: string (default: not set) - Name of the AWS S3 bucket to use. The bucket must already exist.
  • s3CredentialsFile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS credentials file.
  • s3ConfigFile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS config file.
  • s3Profile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS profile.
  • s3Region: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS region.
  • s3EndpointOverride: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS S3 API endpoint instead of the default one.
  • azureContainerName: string (default: not set) - Name of the Azure container to use. The container must already exist.
  • azureConfigFile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified Azure configuration file instead of the one at the default location.
  • azureStorageAccount: string (default: not set) - The account to be used for the operation.
  • azureStorageSasToken: string (default: not set) - Azure Shared Access Signature (SAS) token, to be used for the authentication of the operation, instead of a key.

Requirements

  • MySQL Server 5.7 or newer is required.
  • Size limit for individual files uploaded to the OCI or AWS S3 bucket is 1.2 TiB.
  • Columns with data types which are not safe to be stored in text form (i.e. BLOB) are converted to Base64, hence the size of such columns cannot exceed approximately 0.74 * max_allowed_packet bytes, as configured through that system variable at the target server.
  • Schema object names must use latin1 or utf8 character set.
  • Only tables which use the InnoDB storage engine are guaranteed to be dumped with consistent data.
  • Views and triggers to be dumped must not use qualified names to reference other views or tables.
  • Since util.dumpTables() function does not dump routines, any routines referenced by the dumped objects are expected to already exist when the dump is loaded.

Details

This operation writes SQL files per each table and view dumped, along with some global SQL files. The information about the source schema is also saved, meaning that when using the util.loadDump() function to load the dump, it is automatically recreated. Alternatively, dump can be loaded into another existing schema using the schema option.

Table data dumps are written to text files using the specified file format, optionally splitting them into multiple chunk files.

Requires an open, global Shell session, and uses its connection options, such as compression, ssl-mode, etc., to establish additional connections.

Options

If the all option is set to true and the tables parameter is set to an empty array, all views and tables from the specified schema are going to be dumped. If the tables parameter is not set to an empty array, an exception is thrown.

The names given in the exclude{object}, include{object}, where or partitions options should be valid MySQL identifiers, quoted using backtick characters when required.

If the exclude{object}, include{object}, where or partitions options contain an object which does not exist, or an object which belongs to a schema which does not exist, it is ignored.

The tzUtc option allows dumping TIMESTAMP data when a server has data in different time zones or data is being moved between servers with different time zones.

If the consistent option is set to true, a global read lock is set using the FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK statement, all threads establish connections with the server and start transactions using:

  • SET SESSION TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL REPEATABLE READ
  • START TRANSACTION WITH CONSISTENT SNAPSHOT

Once all the threads start transactions, the instance is locked for backup and the global read lock is released.

If the account used for the dump does not have enough privileges to execute FLUSH TABLES, LOCK TABLES will be used as a fallback instead. All tables being dumped, in addition to DDL and GRANT related tables in the mysql schema will be temporarily locked.

The ddlOnly and dataOnly options cannot both be set to true at the same time.

The chunking option causes the the data from each table to be split and written to multiple chunk files. If this option is set to false, table data is written to a single file.

If the chunking option is set to true, but a table to be dumped cannot be chunked (for example if it does not contain a primary key or a unique index), data is dumped to multiple files using a single thread.

The value of the threads option must be a positive number.

The dialect option predefines the set of options fieldsTerminatedBy (FT), fieldsEnclosedBy (FE), fieldsOptionallyEnclosed (FOE), fieldsEscapedBy (FESC) and linesTerminatedBy (LT) in the following manner:

  • default: no quoting, tab-separated, LF line endings. (LT=<LF>, FESC='\', FT=<TAB>, FE=<empty>, FOE=false)
  • csv: optionally quoted, comma-separated, CRLF line endings. (LT=<CR><LF>, FESC='\', FT=",", FE='"', FOE=true)
  • tsv: optionally quoted, tab-separated, CRLF line endings. (LT=<CR><LF>, FESC='\', FT=<TAB>, FE='"', FOE=true)
  • csv-unix: fully quoted, comma-separated, LF line endings. (LT=<LF>, FESC='\', FT=",", FE='"', FOE=false)

Both the bytesPerChunk and maxRate options support unit suffixes:

  • k - for kilobytes,
  • M - for Megabytes,
  • G - for Gigabytes,

i.e. maxRate="2k" - limit throughput to 2000 bytes per second.

The value of the bytesPerChunk option cannot be smaller than "128k".

MySQL HeatWave Service Compatibility

The MySQL HeatWave Service has a few security related restrictions that are not present in a regular, on-premise instance of MySQL. In order to make it easier to load existing databases into the Service, the dump commands in the MySQL Shell has options to detect potential issues and in some cases, to automatically adjust your schema definition to be compliant. For best results, always use the latest available version of MySQL Shell.

The ocimds option, when set to true, will perform schema checks for most of these issues and abort the dump if any are found. The loadDump() command will also only allow loading dumps that have been created with the "ocimds" option enabled.

Some issues found by the ocimds option may require you to manually make changes to your database schema before it can be loaded into the MySQL HeatWave Service. However, the compatibility option can be used to automatically modify the dumped schema SQL scripts, resolving some of these compatibility issues. You may pass one or more of the following values to the "compatibility" option.

create_invisible_pks - Each table which does not have a Primary Key will have one created when the dump is loaded. The following Primary Key is added to the table:

`my_row_id` BIGINT UNSIGNED AUTO_INCREMENT INVISIBLE PRIMARY KEY

Dumps created with this value can be used with Inbound Replication into an MySQL HeatWave Service DB System instance with High Availability, as long as target instance has version 8.0.32 or newer. Mutually exclusive with the ignore_missing_pks value.

force_innodb - The MySQL HeatWave Service requires use of the InnoDB storage engine. This option will modify the ENGINE= clause of CREATE TABLE statements that use incompatible storage engines and replace them with InnoDB. It will also remove the ROW_FORMAT=FIXED option, as it is not supported by the InnoDB storage engine.

ignore_missing_pks - Ignore errors caused by tables which do not have Primary Keys. Dumps created with this value cannot be used in MySQL HeatWave Service DB System instance with High Availability. Mutually exclusive with the create_invisible_pks value.

ignore_wildcard_grants - Ignore errors from grants on schemas with wildcards, which are interpreted differently in systems where partial_revokes system variable is enabled.

skip_invalid_accounts - Skips accounts which do not have a password or use authentication methods (plugins) not supported by the MySQL HeatWave Service.

strip_definers - This option should not be used if the destination MySQL HeatWave Service DB System instance has version 8.2.0 or newer. In such case, the administrator role is granted the SET_ANY_DEFINER privilege. Users which have this privilege are able to specify any valid authentication ID in the DEFINER clause.

Strips the "DEFINER=account" clause from views, routines, events and triggers. The MySQL HeatWave Service requires special privileges to create these objects with a definer other than the user loading the schema. By stripping the DEFINER clause, these objects will be created with that default definer. Views and routines will additionally have their SQL SECURITY clause changed from DEFINER to INVOKER. If this characteristic is missing, SQL SECURITY INVOKER clause will be added. This ensures that the access permissions of the account querying or calling these are applied, instead of the user that created them. This should be sufficient for most users, but if your database security model requires that views and routines have more privileges than their invoker, you will need to manually modify the schema before loading it.

Please refer to the MySQL manual for details about DEFINER and SQL SECURITY.

strip_invalid_grants - Strips grant statements which would fail when users are loaded, i.e. grants referring to a specific routine which does not exist.

strip_restricted_grants - Certain privileges are restricted in the MySQL HeatWave Service. Attempting to create users granting these privileges would fail, so this option allows dumped GRANT statements to be stripped of these privileges. If the destination MySQL version supports the SET_ANY_DEFINER privilege, the SET_USER_ID privilege is replaced with SET_ANY_DEFINER instead of being stripped.

strip_tablespaces - Tablespaces have some restrictions in the MySQL HeatWave Service. If you'd like to have tables created in their default tablespaces, this option will strip the TABLESPACE= option from CREATE TABLE statements.

Additionally, the following changes will always be made to DDL scripts when the ocimds option is enabled:

  • DATA DIRECTORY, INDEX DIRECTORY and ENCRYPTION options in CREATE TABLE statements will be commented out.

In order to use Inbound Replication into an MySQL HeatWave Service DB System instance with High Availability where instance has version older than 8.0.32, all tables at the source server need to have Primary Keys. This needs to be fixed manually before running the dump. Starting with MySQL 8.0.23 invisible columns may be used to add Primary Keys without changing the schema compatibility, for more information see: https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/en/invisible-columns.html.

In order to use Inbound Replication into an MySQL HeatWave Service DB System instance with High Availability, please see https://docs.oracle.com/en-us/iaas/mysql-database/doc/creating-replication-channel.html.

In order to use MySQL HeatWave Service DB Service instance with High Availability, all tables must have a Primary Key. This can be fixed automatically using the create_invisible_pks compatibility value.

Please refer to the MySQL HeatWave Service documentation for more information about restrictions and compatibility.

Dumping to a Bucket in the OCI Object Storage

There are 2 ways to create a dump in OCI Object Storage:

  • By using the standard client OCI configuration.
  • By using a Pre-Authenticated Request (PAR).

Dumping to OCI Object Storage using the client OCI configuration

The osBucketName option is used to indicate the connection is established using the locally configured OCI client profile.

If the osBucketName option is used, the dump is stored in the specified OCI bucket, connection is established using the local OCI profile. The directory structure is simulated within the object name.

The osNamespace, ociConfigFile and ociProfile options cannot be used if the osBucketName option is set to an empty string.

The osNamespace option overrides the OCI namespace obtained based on the tenancy ID from the local OCI profile.

Dumping to OCI Object Storage using Pre-Authenticated Request (PAR)

When using a PAR to create a dump, no client OCI configuration is needed to perform the dump operation. A bucket or prefix PAR with the following access types is required to perform a dump with this method:

  • Permit object reads and writes.
  • Enable object listing.

When using a bucket PAR, the generated PAR URL should be used as the output_url argument for the dump operation. i.e. the following is a bucket PAR to create dump at the root folder of the 'test' bucket:

https://*.objectstorage.*.oci.customer-oci.com/p/*/n/*/b/test/o/

When using a prefix PAR, the output_url argument should contain the PAR URL itself and the prefix used to generate it. i.e. the following is a prefix PAR to create a dump at the 'dump' folder of the 'test' bucket. The PAR was created using 'dump' as prefix:

https://*.objectstorage.*.oci.customer-oci.com/p/*/n/*/b/test/o/dump/

Note that both the bucket and the prefix PAR URLs must end with a slash, otherwise it will be considered invalid.

When using a PAR, a temporary directory is created to be used as staging area; each file is initially buffered to disk and then sent to the target bucket, deleting it when it is transferred.

This will be done on the system temporary directory, defined by any of the following environment variables:

  • POSIX: TMPDIR, TMP, TEMP, TEMPDIR. If none is defined, uses /tmp.
  • Windows: TMP, TEMP, USERPROFILE. If none is defined, uses the Windows directory.

Enabling dump loading using pre-authenticated requests

The loadDump utility supports loading a dump using a pre-authenticated request (PAR). The simplest way to do this is by providing a PAR to the location of the dump in a bucket, the PAR must be created with the following permissions:

  • Permits object reads
  • Enables object listing

The generated URL can be used to load the dump, see \? loadDump for more details.

Attention
The ociParManifest and ociParExpireTime options described below are deprecated and will be removed in a future release.

Another way to enable loading a dump without requiring an OCI Profile, is to execute the dump operations enabling the ociParManifest option which will cause the dump operation automatically generates a PAR for every file in the dump, and will store them as part of the dump in a file named "@.manifest.json". The manifest is updated as the dump operation progresses.

Using a PAR with permissions to read the manifest is another option to load the dump using PAR.

The ociParManifest option cannot be used if osBucketName is not set.

When creating PARs, an expiration time is required, it can be defined through the ociParExpireTime option. If the option is not used, a predefined expiration time will be used equivalent to a week after the dump operation started. The values assigned to this option should be conformant to RFC3339.

The ociParExpireTime option cannot be used if the ociParManifest option is not enabled.

Dumping to a Bucket in the AWS S3 Object Storage

If the s3BucketName option is used, the dump is stored in the specified AWS S3 bucket. Connection is established using default local AWS configuration paths and profiles, unless overridden. The directory structure is simulated within the object name.

The s3CredentialsFile, s3ConfigFile, s3Profile, s3Region and s3EndpointOverride options cannot be used if the s3BucketName option is not set or set to an empty string.

Handling of the AWS settings

The AWS options are evaluated in the order of precedence, the first available value is used.

  1. Name of the AWS profile:
    • the s3Profile option
    • the AWS_PROFILE environment variable
    • the AWS_DEFAULT_PROFILE environment variable
    • the default value of default
  2. Location of the credentials file:
    • the s3CredentialsFile option
    • the AWS_SHARED_CREDENTIALS_FILE environment variable
    • the default value of ~/.aws/credentials
  3. Location of the config file:
    • the s3ConfigFile option
    • the AWS_CONFIG_FILE environment variable
    • the default value of ~/.aws/config
  4. Name of the AWS region:
    • the s3Region option
    • the AWS_REGION environment variable
    • the AWS_DEFAULT_REGION environment variable
    • the region setting from the config file for the specified profile
    • the default value of us-east-1
  5. URI of AWS S3 API endpoint
    • the s3EndpointOverride option
    • the default value of https://<s3BucketName>.s3.<region>.amazonaws.com

The AWS credentials are fetched from the following providers, in the order of precedence:

  1. Environment variables:
    • AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID
    • AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY
    • AWS_SESSION_TOKEN
  2. Settings from the credentials file for the specified profile:
    • aws_access_key_id
    • aws_secret_access_key
    • aws_session_token
  3. Process specified by the credential_process setting from the config file for the specified profile:
    • AccessKeyId
    • SecretAccessKey
    • SessionToken
  4. Settings from the config file for the specified profile:
    • aws_access_key_id
    • aws_secret_access_key
    • aws_session_token

The items specified above correspond to the following credentials:

  • the AWS access key
  • the secret key associated with the AWS access key
  • the AWS session token for the temporary security credentials

The process/command line specified by the credential_process setting must write a JSON object to the standard output in the following form:

{
"Version": 1,
"AccessKeyId": "AWS access key",
"SecretAccessKey": "secret key associated with the AWS access key",
"SessionToken": "temporary AWS session token, optional",
"Expiration": "RFC3339 timestamp, optional"
}

The Expiration key, if given, specifies when the credentials are going to expire, they will be automatically refreshed before this happens.

The following credential handling rules apply:

  • If the s3Profile option is set to a non-empty string, the environment variables are not used as a potential credential provider.
  • If either an access key or a secret key is available in a potential credential provider, it is selected as the credential provider.
  • If either the access key or the secret key is missing in the selected credential provider, an exception is thrown.
  • If the session token is missing in the selected credential provider, or if it is set to an empty string, it is not used to authenticate the user.

Dumping to a Container in the Azure Blob Storage

If the azureContainerName option is used, the dump is stored in the specified Azure container. Connection is established using the configuration at the local Azure configuration file.The directory structure is simulated within the blob name.

The azureConfigFile option cannot be used if the azureContainerName option is not set or set to an empty string.

Handling of the Azure settings

  1. The following settings are read from the storage section in the config file:
    • connection_string
    • account
    • key
    • sas_token
    Additionally, the connection options may be defined using the standard Azure environment variables:
    • AZURE_STORAGE_CONNECTION_STRING
    • AZURE_STORAGE_ACCOUNT
    • AZURE_STORAGE_KEY
    • AZURE_STORAGE_SAS_TOKEN
    The Azure configuration values are evaluated in the following precedence:
  • Options parameter
  • Environment Variables
  • Configuration File

If a connection string is defined either case in the environment variable or the configuration option, the individual configuration values for account and key will be ignored.

If a SAS Token is defined, it will be used for the authorization (ignoring any defined account key).

The default Azure Blob Endpoint to be used in the operations is defined by:

https://<account>.blob.core.windows.net

Unless a different EndPoint is defined in the connection string.

Exceptions
ArgumentErrorin the following scenarios:
  • If any of the input arguments contains an invalid value.
RuntimeErrorin the following scenarios:
  • If there is no open global session.
  • If creating the output directory fails.
  • If creating or writing to the output file fails.

◆ dumpSchemas()

Undefined dumpSchemas ( List  schemas,
String  outputUrl,
Dictionary  options 
)

Dumps the specified schemas to the files in the output directory.

Parameters
schemasList of schemas to be dumped.
outputUrlTarget directory to store the dump files.
optionsOptional dictionary with the dump options.

The schemas parameter cannot be an empty list.

The outputUrl specifies where the dump is going to be stored.

The value for this parameter can be either:

  • The path to the target location in a local filesystem or one of the supported cloud storage buckets
  • A Pre-Authenticated Request (PAR) to a bucket in OCI Object Storage

By default, a local directory is used, and in this case outputUrl can be prefixed with file:// scheme. If a relative path is given, the absolute path is computed as relative to the current working directory. If the output directory does not exist but its parent does, it is created. If the output directory exists, it must be empty. All directories are created with the following access rights (on operating systems which support them): rwxr-x---. All files are created with the following access rights (on operating systems which support them): rw-r-----.

For additional details on using PARs see the Dumping to OCI Object Storage using Pre-Authenticated Request (PAR) section.

The following options are supported:

  • excludeTables: list of strings (default: empty) - List of tables or views to be excluded from the dump in the format of schema.table.
  • includeTables: list of strings (default: empty) - List of tables or views to be included in the dump in the format of schema.table.
  • ocimds: bool (default: false) - Enable checks for compatibility with MySQL HeatWave Service.
  • compatibility: list of strings (default: empty) - Apply MySQL HeatWave Service compatibility modifications when writing dump files. Supported values: "create_invisible_pks", "force_innodb", "ignore_missing_pks", "ignore_wildcard_grants", "skip_invalid_accounts", "strip_definers", "strip_invalid_grants", "strip_restricted_grants", "strip_tablespaces".
  • targetVersion: string (default: current version of Shell) - Specifies version of the destination MySQL server.
  • events: bool (default: true) - Include events from each dumped schema.
  • excludeEvents: list of strings (default: empty) - List of events to be excluded from the dump in the format of schema.event.
  • includeEvents: list of strings (default: empty) - List of events to be included in the dump in the format of schema.event.
  • routines: bool (default: true) - Include functions and stored procedures for each dumped schema.
  • excludeRoutines: list of strings (default: empty) - List of routines to be excluded from the dump in the format of schema.routine.
  • includeRoutines: list of strings (default: empty) - List of routines to be included in the dump in the format of schema.routine.
  • triggers: bool (default: true) - Include triggers for each dumped table.
  • excludeTriggers: list of strings (default: empty) - List of triggers to be excluded from the dump in the format of schema.table (all triggers from the specified table) or schema.table.trigger (the individual trigger).
  • includeTriggers: list of strings (default: empty) - List of triggers to be included in the dump in the format of schema.table (all triggers from the specified table) or schema.table.trigger (the individual trigger).
  • where: dictionary (default: not set) - A key-value pair of a table name in the format of schema.table and a valid SQL condition expression used to filter the data being exported.
  • partitions: dictionary (default: not set) - A key-value pair of a table name in the format of schema.table and a list of valid partition names used to limit the data export to just the specified partitions.
  • tzUtc: bool (default: true) - Convert TIMESTAMP data to UTC.
  • consistent: bool (default: true) - Enable or disable consistent data dumps. When enabled, produces a transactionally consistent dump at a specific point in time.
  • skipConsistencyChecks: bool (default: false) - Skips additional consistency checks which are executed when running consistent dumps and i.e. backup lock cannot not be acquired.
  • ddlOnly: bool (default: false) - Only dump Data Definition Language (DDL) from the database.
  • dataOnly: bool (default: false) - Only dump data from the database.
  • checksum: bool (default: false) - Compute and include checksum of the dumped data.
  • dryRun: bool (default: false) - Print information about what would be dumped, but do not dump anything. If ocimds is enabled, also checks for compatibility issues with MySQL HeatWave Service.
  • chunking: bool (default: true) - Enable chunking of the tables.
  • bytesPerChunk: string (default: "64M") - Sets average estimated number of bytes to be written to each chunk file, enables chunking.
  • threads: int (default: 4) - Use N threads to dump data chunks from the server.
  • fieldsTerminatedBy: string (default: "\t") - This option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE.
  • fieldsEnclosedBy: char (default: '') - This option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE.
  • fieldsEscapedBy: char (default: '\') - This option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE.
  • fieldsOptionallyEnclosed: bool (default: false) - Set to true if the input values are not necessarily enclosed within quotation marks specified by fieldsEnclosedBy option. Set to false if all fields are quoted by character specified by fieldsEnclosedBy option.
  • linesTerminatedBy: string (default: "\n") - This option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE. See Section 13.2.10.1, "SELECT ... INTO Statement".
  • dialect: enum (default: "default") - Setup fields and lines options that matches specific data file format. Can be used as base dialect and customized with fieldsTerminatedBy, fieldsEnclosedBy, fieldsEscapedBy, fieldsOptionallyEnclosed and linesTerminatedBy options. Must be one of the following values: default, csv, tsv or csv-unix.
  • maxRate: string (default: "0") - Limit data read throughput to maximum rate, measured in bytes per second per thread. Use maxRate="0" to set no limit.
  • showProgress: bool (default: true if stdout is a TTY device, false otherwise) - Enable or disable dump progress information.
  • defaultCharacterSet: string (default: "utf8mb4") - Character set used for the dump.
  • compression: string (default: "zstd") - Compression used when writing the data dump files, one of: "none", "gzip", "zstd".
  • osBucketName: string (default: not set) - Use specified OCI bucket for the location of the dump.
  • osNamespace: string (default: not set) - Specifies the namespace where the bucket is located, if not given it will be obtained using the tenancy id on the OCI configuration.
  • ociConfigFile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified OCI configuration file instead of the one at the default location.
  • ociProfile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified OCI profile instead of the default one.
  • ociParManifest: bool (default: not set) - Enables the generation of the PAR manifest while the dump operation is being executed. Deprecated.
  • ociParExpireTime: string (default: not set) - Allows defining the expiration time for the PARs generated when ociParManifest is enabled. Deprecated.
  • s3BucketName: string (default: not set) - Name of the AWS S3 bucket to use. The bucket must already exist.
  • s3CredentialsFile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS credentials file.
  • s3ConfigFile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS config file.
  • s3Profile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS profile.
  • s3Region: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS region.
  • s3EndpointOverride: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS S3 API endpoint instead of the default one.
  • azureContainerName: string (default: not set) - Name of the Azure container to use. The container must already exist.
  • azureConfigFile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified Azure configuration file instead of the one at the default location.
  • azureStorageAccount: string (default: not set) - The account to be used for the operation.
  • azureStorageSasToken: string (default: not set) - Azure Shared Access Signature (SAS) token, to be used for the authentication of the operation, instead of a key.

Requirements

  • MySQL Server 5.7 or newer is required.
  • Size limit for individual files uploaded to the OCI or AWS S3 bucket is 1.2 TiB.
  • Columns with data types which are not safe to be stored in text form (i.e. BLOB) are converted to Base64, hence the size of such columns cannot exceed approximately 0.74 * max_allowed_packet bytes, as configured through that system variable at the target server.
  • Schema object names must use latin1 or utf8 character set.
  • Only tables which use the InnoDB storage engine are guaranteed to be dumped with consistent data.

Details

This operation writes SQL files per each schema, table and view dumped, along with some global SQL files.

Table data dumps are written to text files using the specified file format, optionally splitting them into multiple chunk files.

Requires an open, global Shell session, and uses its connection options, such as compression, ssl-mode, etc., to establish additional connections.

Data dumps cannot be created for the following tables:

  • mysql.apply_status
  • mysql.general_log
  • mysql.schema
  • mysql.slow_log

Options

The names given in the exclude{object}, include{object}, where or partitions options should be valid MySQL identifiers, quoted using backtick characters when required.

If the exclude{object}, include{object}, where or partitions options contain an object which does not exist, or an object which belongs to a schema which does not exist, it is ignored.

The tzUtc option allows dumping TIMESTAMP data when a server has data in different time zones or data is being moved between servers with different time zones.

If the consistent option is set to true, a global read lock is set using the FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK statement, all threads establish connections with the server and start transactions using:

  • SET SESSION TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL REPEATABLE READ
  • START TRANSACTION WITH CONSISTENT SNAPSHOT

Once all the threads start transactions, the instance is locked for backup and the global read lock is released.

If the account used for the dump does not have enough privileges to execute FLUSH TABLES, LOCK TABLES will be used as a fallback instead. All tables being dumped, in addition to DDL and GRANT related tables in the mysql schema will be temporarily locked.

The ddlOnly and dataOnly options cannot both be set to true at the same time.

The chunking option causes the the data from each table to be split and written to multiple chunk files. If this option is set to false, table data is written to a single file.

If the chunking option is set to true, but a table to be dumped cannot be chunked (for example if it does not contain a primary key or a unique index), data is dumped to multiple files using a single thread.

The value of the threads option must be a positive number.

The dialect option predefines the set of options fieldsTerminatedBy (FT), fieldsEnclosedBy (FE), fieldsOptionallyEnclosed (FOE), fieldsEscapedBy (FESC) and linesTerminatedBy (LT) in the following manner:

  • default: no quoting, tab-separated, LF line endings. (LT=<LF>, FESC='\', FT=<TAB>, FE=<empty>, FOE=false)
  • csv: optionally quoted, comma-separated, CRLF line endings. (LT=<CR><LF>, FESC='\', FT=",", FE='"', FOE=true)
  • tsv: optionally quoted, tab-separated, CRLF line endings. (LT=<CR><LF>, FESC='\', FT=<TAB>, FE='"', FOE=true)
  • csv-unix: fully quoted, comma-separated, LF line endings. (LT=<LF>, FESC='\', FT=",", FE='"', FOE=false)

Both the bytesPerChunk and maxRate options support unit suffixes:

  • k - for kilobytes,
  • M - for Megabytes,
  • G - for Gigabytes,

i.e. maxRate="2k" - limit throughput to 2000 bytes per second.

The value of the bytesPerChunk option cannot be smaller than "128k".

MySQL HeatWave Service Compatibility

The MySQL HeatWave Service has a few security related restrictions that are not present in a regular, on-premise instance of MySQL. In order to make it easier to load existing databases into the Service, the dump commands in the MySQL Shell has options to detect potential issues and in some cases, to automatically adjust your schema definition to be compliant. For best results, always use the latest available version of MySQL Shell.

The ocimds option, when set to true, will perform schema checks for most of these issues and abort the dump if any are found. The loadDump() command will also only allow loading dumps that have been created with the "ocimds" option enabled.

Some issues found by the ocimds option may require you to manually make changes to your database schema before it can be loaded into the MySQL HeatWave Service. However, the compatibility option can be used to automatically modify the dumped schema SQL scripts, resolving some of these compatibility issues. You may pass one or more of the following values to the "compatibility" option.

create_invisible_pks - Each table which does not have a Primary Key will have one created when the dump is loaded. The following Primary Key is added to the table:

`my_row_id` BIGINT UNSIGNED AUTO_INCREMENT INVISIBLE PRIMARY KEY

Dumps created with this value can be used with Inbound Replication into an MySQL HeatWave Service DB System instance with High Availability, as long as target instance has version 8.0.32 or newer. Mutually exclusive with the ignore_missing_pks value.

force_innodb - The MySQL HeatWave Service requires use of the InnoDB storage engine. This option will modify the ENGINE= clause of CREATE TABLE statements that use incompatible storage engines and replace them with InnoDB. It will also remove the ROW_FORMAT=FIXED option, as it is not supported by the InnoDB storage engine.

ignore_missing_pks - Ignore errors caused by tables which do not have Primary Keys. Dumps created with this value cannot be used in MySQL HeatWave Service DB System instance with High Availability. Mutually exclusive with the create_invisible_pks value.

ignore_wildcard_grants - Ignore errors from grants on schemas with wildcards, which are interpreted differently in systems where partial_revokes system variable is enabled.

skip_invalid_accounts - Skips accounts which do not have a password or use authentication methods (plugins) not supported by the MySQL HeatWave Service.

strip_definers - This option should not be used if the destination MySQL HeatWave Service DB System instance has version 8.2.0 or newer. In such case, the administrator role is granted the SET_ANY_DEFINER privilege. Users which have this privilege are able to specify any valid authentication ID in the DEFINER clause.

Strips the "DEFINER=account" clause from views, routines, events and triggers. The MySQL HeatWave Service requires special privileges to create these objects with a definer other than the user loading the schema. By stripping the DEFINER clause, these objects will be created with that default definer. Views and routines will additionally have their SQL SECURITY clause changed from DEFINER to INVOKER. If this characteristic is missing, SQL SECURITY INVOKER clause will be added. This ensures that the access permissions of the account querying or calling these are applied, instead of the user that created them. This should be sufficient for most users, but if your database security model requires that views and routines have more privileges than their invoker, you will need to manually modify the schema before loading it.

Please refer to the MySQL manual for details about DEFINER and SQL SECURITY.

strip_invalid_grants - Strips grant statements which would fail when users are loaded, i.e. grants referring to a specific routine which does not exist.

strip_restricted_grants - Certain privileges are restricted in the MySQL HeatWave Service. Attempting to create users granting these privileges would fail, so this option allows dumped GRANT statements to be stripped of these privileges. If the destination MySQL version supports the SET_ANY_DEFINER privilege, the SET_USER_ID privilege is replaced with SET_ANY_DEFINER instead of being stripped.

strip_tablespaces - Tablespaces have some restrictions in the MySQL HeatWave Service. If you'd like to have tables created in their default tablespaces, this option will strip the TABLESPACE= option from CREATE TABLE statements.

Additionally, the following changes will always be made to DDL scripts when the ocimds option is enabled:

  • DATA DIRECTORY, INDEX DIRECTORY and ENCRYPTION options in CREATE TABLE statements will be commented out.

In order to use Inbound Replication into an MySQL HeatWave Service DB System instance with High Availability where instance has version older than 8.0.32, all tables at the source server need to have Primary Keys. This needs to be fixed manually before running the dump. Starting with MySQL 8.0.23 invisible columns may be used to add Primary Keys without changing the schema compatibility, for more information see: https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/en/invisible-columns.html.

In order to use Inbound Replication into an MySQL HeatWave Service DB System instance with High Availability, please see https://docs.oracle.com/en-us/iaas/mysql-database/doc/creating-replication-channel.html.

In order to use MySQL HeatWave Service DB Service instance with High Availability, all tables must have a Primary Key. This can be fixed automatically using the create_invisible_pks compatibility value.

Please refer to the MySQL HeatWave Service documentation for more information about restrictions and compatibility.

Dumping to a Bucket in the OCI Object Storage

There are 2 ways to create a dump in OCI Object Storage:

  • By using the standard client OCI configuration.
  • By using a Pre-Authenticated Request (PAR).

Dumping to OCI Object Storage using the client OCI configuration

The osBucketName option is used to indicate the connection is established using the locally configured OCI client profile.

If the osBucketName option is used, the dump is stored in the specified OCI bucket, connection is established using the local OCI profile. The directory structure is simulated within the object name.

The osNamespace, ociConfigFile and ociProfile options cannot be used if the osBucketName option is set to an empty string.

The osNamespace option overrides the OCI namespace obtained based on the tenancy ID from the local OCI profile.

Dumping to OCI Object Storage using Pre-Authenticated Request (PAR)

When using a PAR to create a dump, no client OCI configuration is needed to perform the dump operation. A bucket or prefix PAR with the following access types is required to perform a dump with this method:

  • Permit object reads and writes.
  • Enable object listing.

When using a bucket PAR, the generated PAR URL should be used as the output_url argument for the dump operation. i.e. the following is a bucket PAR to create dump at the root folder of the 'test' bucket:

https://*.objectstorage.*.oci.customer-oci.com/p/*/n/*/b/test/o/

When using a prefix PAR, the output_url argument should contain the PAR URL itself and the prefix used to generate it. i.e. the following is a prefix PAR to create a dump at the 'dump' folder of the 'test' bucket. The PAR was created using 'dump' as prefix:

https://*.objectstorage.*.oci.customer-oci.com/p/*/n/*/b/test/o/dump/

Note that both the bucket and the prefix PAR URLs must end with a slash, otherwise it will be considered invalid.

When using a PAR, a temporary directory is created to be used as staging area; each file is initially buffered to disk and then sent to the target bucket, deleting it when it is transferred.

This will be done on the system temporary directory, defined by any of the following environment variables:

  • POSIX: TMPDIR, TMP, TEMP, TEMPDIR. If none is defined, uses /tmp.
  • Windows: TMP, TEMP, USERPROFILE. If none is defined, uses the Windows directory.

Enabling dump loading using pre-authenticated requests

The loadDump utility supports loading a dump using a pre-authenticated request (PAR). The simplest way to do this is by providing a PAR to the location of the dump in a bucket, the PAR must be created with the following permissions:

  • Permits object reads
  • Enables object listing

The generated URL can be used to load the dump, see \? loadDump for more details.

Attention
The ociParManifest and ociParExpireTime options described below are deprecated and will be removed in a future release.

Another way to enable loading a dump without requiring an OCI Profile, is to execute the dump operations enabling the ociParManifest option which will cause the dump operation automatically generates a PAR for every file in the dump, and will store them as part of the dump in a file named "@.manifest.json". The manifest is updated as the dump operation progresses.

Using a PAR with permissions to read the manifest is another option to load the dump using PAR.

The ociParManifest option cannot be used if osBucketName is not set.

When creating PARs, an expiration time is required, it can be defined through the ociParExpireTime option. If the option is not used, a predefined expiration time will be used equivalent to a week after the dump operation started. The values assigned to this option should be conformant to RFC3339.

The ociParExpireTime option cannot be used if the ociParManifest option is not enabled.

Dumping to a Bucket in the AWS S3 Object Storage

If the s3BucketName option is used, the dump is stored in the specified AWS S3 bucket. Connection is established using default local AWS configuration paths and profiles, unless overridden. The directory structure is simulated within the object name.

The s3CredentialsFile, s3ConfigFile, s3Profile, s3Region and s3EndpointOverride options cannot be used if the s3BucketName option is not set or set to an empty string.

Handling of the AWS settings

The AWS options are evaluated in the order of precedence, the first available value is used.

  1. Name of the AWS profile:
    • the s3Profile option
    • the AWS_PROFILE environment variable
    • the AWS_DEFAULT_PROFILE environment variable
    • the default value of default
  2. Location of the credentials file:
    • the s3CredentialsFile option
    • the AWS_SHARED_CREDENTIALS_FILE environment variable
    • the default value of ~/.aws/credentials
  3. Location of the config file:
    • the s3ConfigFile option
    • the AWS_CONFIG_FILE environment variable
    • the default value of ~/.aws/config
  4. Name of the AWS region:
    • the s3Region option
    • the AWS_REGION environment variable
    • the AWS_DEFAULT_REGION environment variable
    • the region setting from the config file for the specified profile
    • the default value of us-east-1
  5. URI of AWS S3 API endpoint
    • the s3EndpointOverride option
    • the default value of https://<s3BucketName>.s3.<region>.amazonaws.com

The AWS credentials are fetched from the following providers, in the order of precedence:

  1. Environment variables:
    • AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID
    • AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY
    • AWS_SESSION_TOKEN
  2. Settings from the credentials file for the specified profile:
    • aws_access_key_id
    • aws_secret_access_key
    • aws_session_token
  3. Process specified by the credential_process setting from the config file for the specified profile:
    • AccessKeyId
    • SecretAccessKey
    • SessionToken
  4. Settings from the config file for the specified profile:
    • aws_access_key_id
    • aws_secret_access_key
    • aws_session_token

The items specified above correspond to the following credentials:

  • the AWS access key
  • the secret key associated with the AWS access key
  • the AWS session token for the temporary security credentials

The process/command line specified by the credential_process setting must write a JSON object to the standard output in the following form:

{
"Version": 1,
"AccessKeyId": "AWS access key",
"SecretAccessKey": "secret key associated with the AWS access key",
"SessionToken": "temporary AWS session token, optional",
"Expiration": "RFC3339 timestamp, optional"
}

The Expiration key, if given, specifies when the credentials are going to expire, they will be automatically refreshed before this happens.

The following credential handling rules apply:

  • If the s3Profile option is set to a non-empty string, the environment variables are not used as a potential credential provider.
  • If either an access key or a secret key is available in a potential credential provider, it is selected as the credential provider.
  • If either the access key or the secret key is missing in the selected credential provider, an exception is thrown.
  • If the session token is missing in the selected credential provider, or if it is set to an empty string, it is not used to authenticate the user.

Dumping to a Container in the Azure Blob Storage

If the azureContainerName option is used, the dump is stored in the specified Azure container. Connection is established using the configuration at the local Azure configuration file.The directory structure is simulated within the blob name.

The azureConfigFile option cannot be used if the azureContainerName option is not set or set to an empty string.

Handling of the Azure settings

  1. The following settings are read from the storage section in the config file:
    • connection_string
    • account
    • key
    • sas_token
    Additionally, the connection options may be defined using the standard Azure environment variables:
    • AZURE_STORAGE_CONNECTION_STRING
    • AZURE_STORAGE_ACCOUNT
    • AZURE_STORAGE_KEY
    • AZURE_STORAGE_SAS_TOKEN
    The Azure configuration values are evaluated in the following precedence:
  • Options parameter
  • Environment Variables
  • Configuration File

If a connection string is defined either case in the environment variable or the configuration option, the individual configuration values for account and key will be ignored.

If a SAS Token is defined, it will be used for the authorization (ignoring any defined account key).

The default Azure Blob Endpoint to be used in the operations is defined by:

https://<account>.blob.core.windows.net

Unless a different EndPoint is defined in the connection string.

Exceptions
ArgumentErrorin the following scenarios:
  • If any of the input arguments contains an invalid value.
RuntimeErrorin the following scenarios:
  • If there is no open global session.
  • If creating the output directory fails.
  • If creating or writing to the output file fails.

◆ dumpInstance()

Undefined dumpInstance ( String  outputUrl,
Dictionary  options 
)

Dumps the whole database to files in the output directory.

Parameters
outputUrlTarget directory to store the dump files.
optionsOptional dictionary with the dump options.

The outputUrl specifies where the dump is going to be stored.

The value for this parameter can be either:

  • The path to the target location in a local filesystem or one of the supported cloud storage buckets
  • A Pre-Authenticated Request (PAR) to a bucket in OCI Object Storage

By default, a local directory is used, and in this case outputUrl can be prefixed with file:// scheme. If a relative path is given, the absolute path is computed as relative to the current working directory. If the output directory does not exist but its parent does, it is created. If the output directory exists, it must be empty. All directories are created with the following access rights (on operating systems which support them): rwxr-x---. All files are created with the following access rights (on operating systems which support them): rw-r-----.

For additional details on using PARs see the Dumping to OCI Object Storage using Pre-Authenticated Request (PAR) section.

The following options are supported:

  • excludeSchemas: list of strings (default: empty) - List of schemas to be excluded from the dump.
  • includeSchemas: list of strings (default: empty) - List of schemas to be included in the dump.
  • excludeTables: list of strings (default: empty) - List of tables or views to be excluded from the dump in the format of schema.table.
  • includeTables: list of strings (default: empty) - List of tables or views to be included in the dump in the format of schema.table.
  • ocimds: bool (default: false) - Enable checks for compatibility with MySQL HeatWave Service.
  • compatibility: list of strings (default: empty) - Apply MySQL HeatWave Service compatibility modifications when writing dump files. Supported values: "create_invisible_pks", "force_innodb", "ignore_missing_pks", "ignore_wildcard_grants", "skip_invalid_accounts", "strip_definers", "strip_invalid_grants", "strip_restricted_grants", "strip_tablespaces".
  • targetVersion: string (default: current version of Shell) - Specifies version of the destination MySQL server.
  • events: bool (default: true) - Include events from each dumped schema.
  • excludeEvents: list of strings (default: empty) - List of events to be excluded from the dump in the format of schema.event.
  • includeEvents: list of strings (default: empty) - List of events to be included in the dump in the format of schema.event.
  • routines: bool (default: true) - Include functions and stored procedures for each dumped schema.
  • excludeRoutines: list of strings (default: empty) - List of routines to be excluded from the dump in the format of schema.routine.
  • includeRoutines: list of strings (default: empty) - List of routines to be included in the dump in the format of schema.routine.
  • users: bool (default: true) - Include users, roles and grants in the dump file.
  • excludeUsers: array of strings (default not set) - Skip dumping the specified users. Each user is in the format of 'user_name'[@'host']. If the host is not specified, all the accounts with the given user name are excluded.
  • includeUsers: array of strings (default not set) - Dump only the specified users. Each user is in the format of 'user_name'[@'host']. If the host is not specified, all the accounts with the given user name are included. By default, all users are included.
  • triggers: bool (default: true) - Include triggers for each dumped table.
  • excludeTriggers: list of strings (default: empty) - List of triggers to be excluded from the dump in the format of schema.table (all triggers from the specified table) or schema.table.trigger (the individual trigger).
  • includeTriggers: list of strings (default: empty) - List of triggers to be included in the dump in the format of schema.table (all triggers from the specified table) or schema.table.trigger (the individual trigger).
  • where: dictionary (default: not set) - A key-value pair of a table name in the format of schema.table and a valid SQL condition expression used to filter the data being exported.
  • partitions: dictionary (default: not set) - A key-value pair of a table name in the format of schema.table and a list of valid partition names used to limit the data export to just the specified partitions.
  • tzUtc: bool (default: true) - Convert TIMESTAMP data to UTC.
  • consistent: bool (default: true) - Enable or disable consistent data dumps. When enabled, produces a transactionally consistent dump at a specific point in time.
  • skipConsistencyChecks: bool (default: false) - Skips additional consistency checks which are executed when running consistent dumps and i.e. backup lock cannot not be acquired.
  • ddlOnly: bool (default: false) - Only dump Data Definition Language (DDL) from the database.
  • dataOnly: bool (default: false) - Only dump data from the database.
  • checksum: bool (default: false) - Compute and include checksum of the dumped data.
  • dryRun: bool (default: false) - Print information about what would be dumped, but do not dump anything. If ocimds is enabled, also checks for compatibility issues with MySQL HeatWave Service.
  • chunking: bool (default: true) - Enable chunking of the tables.
  • bytesPerChunk: string (default: "64M") - Sets average estimated number of bytes to be written to each chunk file, enables chunking.
  • threads: int (default: 4) - Use N threads to dump data chunks from the server.
  • fieldsTerminatedBy: string (default: "\t") - This option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE.
  • fieldsEnclosedBy: char (default: '') - This option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE.
  • fieldsEscapedBy: char (default: '\') - This option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE.
  • fieldsOptionallyEnclosed: bool (default: false) - Set to true if the input values are not necessarily enclosed within quotation marks specified by fieldsEnclosedBy option. Set to false if all fields are quoted by character specified by fieldsEnclosedBy option.
  • linesTerminatedBy: string (default: "\n") - This option has the same meaning as the corresponding clause for SELECT ... INTO OUTFILE. See Section 13.2.10.1, "SELECT ... INTO Statement".
  • dialect: enum (default: "default") - Setup fields and lines options that matches specific data file format. Can be used as base dialect and customized with fieldsTerminatedBy, fieldsEnclosedBy, fieldsEscapedBy, fieldsOptionallyEnclosed and linesTerminatedBy options. Must be one of the following values: default, csv, tsv or csv-unix.
  • maxRate: string (default: "0") - Limit data read throughput to maximum rate, measured in bytes per second per thread. Use maxRate="0" to set no limit.
  • showProgress: bool (default: true if stdout is a TTY device, false otherwise) - Enable or disable dump progress information.
  • defaultCharacterSet: string (default: "utf8mb4") - Character set used for the dump.
  • compression: string (default: "zstd") - Compression used when writing the data dump files, one of: "none", "gzip", "zstd".
  • osBucketName: string (default: not set) - Use specified OCI bucket for the location of the dump.
  • osNamespace: string (default: not set) - Specifies the namespace where the bucket is located, if not given it will be obtained using the tenancy id on the OCI configuration.
  • ociConfigFile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified OCI configuration file instead of the one at the default location.
  • ociProfile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified OCI profile instead of the default one.
  • ociParManifest: bool (default: not set) - Enables the generation of the PAR manifest while the dump operation is being executed. Deprecated.
  • ociParExpireTime: string (default: not set) - Allows defining the expiration time for the PARs generated when ociParManifest is enabled. Deprecated.
  • s3BucketName: string (default: not set) - Name of the AWS S3 bucket to use. The bucket must already exist.
  • s3CredentialsFile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS credentials file.
  • s3ConfigFile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS config file.
  • s3Profile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS profile.
  • s3Region: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS region.
  • s3EndpointOverride: string (default: not set) - Use the specified AWS S3 API endpoint instead of the default one.
  • azureContainerName: string (default: not set) - Name of the Azure container to use. The container must already exist.
  • azureConfigFile: string (default: not set) - Use the specified Azure configuration file instead of the one at the default location.
  • azureStorageAccount: string (default: not set) - The account to be used for the operation.
  • azureStorageSasToken: string (default: not set) - Azure Shared Access Signature (SAS) token, to be used for the authentication of the operation, instead of a key.

Requirements

  • MySQL Server 5.7 or newer is required.
  • Size limit for individual files uploaded to the OCI or AWS S3 bucket is 1.2 TiB.
  • Columns with data types which are not safe to be stored in text form (i.e. BLOB) are converted to Base64, hence the size of such columns cannot exceed approximately 0.74 * max_allowed_packet bytes, as configured through that system variable at the target server.
  • Schema object names must use latin1 or utf8 character set.
  • Only tables which use the InnoDB storage engine are guaranteed to be dumped with consistent data.

Details

This operation writes SQL files per each schema, table and view dumped, along with some global SQL files.

Table data dumps are written to text files using the specified file format, optionally splitting them into multiple chunk files.

Requires an open, global Shell session, and uses its connection options, such as compression, ssl-mode, etc., to establish additional connections.

Data dumps cannot be created for the following tables:

  • mysql.apply_status
  • mysql.general_log
  • mysql.schema
  • mysql.slow_log

Dumps cannot be created for the following schemas:

  • information_schema,
  • mysql,
  • ndbinfo,
  • performance_schema,
  • sys.

Options

If the excludeSchemas or includeSchemas options contain a schema which is not included in the dump or does not exist, it is ignored.

The names given in the exclude{object}, include{object}, where or partitions options should be valid MySQL identifiers, quoted using backtick characters when required.

If the exclude{object}, include{object}, where or partitions options contain an object which does not exist, or an object which belongs to a schema which does not exist, it is ignored.

The tzUtc option allows dumping TIMESTAMP data when a server has data in different time zones or data is being moved between servers with different time zones.

If the consistent option is set to true, a global read lock is set using the FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK statement, all threads establish connections with the server and start transactions using:

  • SET SESSION TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL REPEATABLE READ
  • START TRANSACTION WITH CONSISTENT SNAPSHOT

Once all the threads start transactions, the instance is locked for backup and the global read lock is released.

If the account used for the dump does not have enough privileges to execute FLUSH TABLES, LOCK TABLES will be used as a fallback instead. All tables being dumped, in addition to DDL and GRANT related tables in the mysql schema will be temporarily locked.

The ddlOnly and dataOnly options cannot both be set to true at the same time.

The chunking option causes the the data from each table to be split and written to multiple chunk files. If this option is set to false, table data is written to a single file.

If the chunking option is set to true, but a table to be dumped cannot be chunked (for example if it does not contain a primary key or a unique index), data is dumped to multiple files using a single thread.

The value of the threads option must be a positive number.

The dialect option predefines the set of options fieldsTerminatedBy (FT), fieldsEnclosedBy (FE), fieldsOptionallyEnclosed (FOE), fieldsEscapedBy (FESC) and linesTerminatedBy (LT) in the following manner:

  • default: no quoting, tab-separated, LF line endings. (LT=<LF>, FESC='\', FT=<TAB>, FE=<empty>, FOE=false)
  • csv: optionally quoted, comma-separated, CRLF line endings. (LT=<CR><LF>, FESC='\', FT=",", FE='"', FOE=true)
  • tsv: optionally quoted, tab-separated, CRLF line endings. (LT=<CR><LF>, FESC='\', FT=<TAB>, FE='"', FOE=true)
  • csv-unix: fully quoted, comma-separated, LF line endings. (LT=<LF>, FESC='\', FT=",", FE='"', FOE=false)

Both the bytesPerChunk and maxRate options support unit suffixes:

  • k - for kilobytes,
  • M - for Megabytes,
  • G - for Gigabytes,

i.e. maxRate="2k" - limit throughput to 2000 bytes per second.

The value of the bytesPerChunk option cannot be smaller than "128k".

MySQL HeatWave Service Compatibility

The MySQL HeatWave Service has a few security related restrictions that are not present in a regular, on-premise instance of MySQL. In order to make it easier to load existing databases into the Service, the dump commands in the MySQL Shell has options to detect potential issues and in some cases, to automatically adjust your schema definition to be compliant. For best results, always use the latest available version of MySQL Shell.

The ocimds option, when set to true, will perform schema checks for most of these issues and abort the dump if any are found. The loadDump() command will also only allow loading dumps that have been created with the "ocimds" option enabled.

Some issues found by the ocimds option may require you to manually make changes to your database schema before it can be loaded into the MySQL HeatWave Service. However, the compatibility option can be used to automatically modify the dumped schema SQL scripts, resolving some of these compatibility issues. You may pass one or more of the following values to the "compatibility" option.

create_invisible_pks - Each table which does not have a Primary Key will have one created when the dump is loaded. The following Primary Key is added to the table:

`my_row_id` BIGINT UNSIGNED AUTO_INCREMENT INVISIBLE PRIMARY KEY

Dumps created with this value can be used with Inbound Replication into an MySQL HeatWave Service DB System instance with High Availability, as long as target instance has version 8.0.32 or newer. Mutually exclusive with the ignore_missing_pks value.

force_innodb - The MySQL HeatWave Service requires use of the InnoDB storage engine. This option will modify the ENGINE= clause of CREATE TABLE statements that use incompatible storage engines and replace them with InnoDB. It will also remove the ROW_FORMAT=FIXED option, as it is not supported by the InnoDB storage engine.

ignore_missing_pks - Ignore errors caused by tables which do not have Primary Keys. Dumps created with this value cannot be used in MySQL HeatWave Service DB System instance with High Availability. Mutually exclusive with the create_invisible_pks value.

ignore_wildcard_grants - Ignore errors from grants on schemas with wildcards, which are interpreted differently in systems where partial_revokes system variable is enabled.

skip_invalid_accounts - Skips accounts which do not have a password or use authentication methods (plugins) not supported by the MySQL HeatWave Service.

strip_definers - This option should not be used if the destination MySQL HeatWave Service DB System instance has version 8.2.0 or newer. In such case, the administrator role is granted the SET_ANY_DEFINER privilege. Users which have this privilege are able to specify any valid authentication ID in the DEFINER clause.

Strips the "DEFINER=account" clause from views, routines, events and triggers. The MySQL HeatWave Service requires special privileges to create these objects with a definer other than the user loading the schema. By stripping the DEFINER clause, these objects will be created with that default definer. Views and routines will additionally have their SQL SECURITY clause changed from DEFINER to INVOKER. If this characteristic is missing, SQL SECURITY INVOKER clause will be added. This ensures that the access permissions of the account querying or calling these are applied, instead of the user that created them. This should be sufficient for most users, but if your database security model requires that views and routines have more privileges than their invoker, you will need to manually modify the schema before loading it.

Please refer to the MySQL manual for details about DEFINER and SQL SECURITY.

strip_invalid_grants - Strips grant statements which would fail when users are loaded, i.e. grants referring to a specific routine which does not exist.

strip_restricted_grants - Certain privileges are restricted in the MySQL HeatWave Service. Attempting to create users granting these privileges would fail, so this option allows dumped GRANT statements to be stripped of these privileges. If the destination MySQL version supports the SET_ANY_DEFINER privilege, the SET_USER_ID privilege is replaced with SET_ANY_DEFINER instead of being stripped.

strip_tablespaces - Tablespaces have some restrictions in the MySQL HeatWave Service. If you'd like to have tables created in their default tablespaces, this option will strip the TABLESPACE= option from CREATE TABLE statements.

Additionally, the following changes will always be made to DDL scripts when the ocimds option is enabled:

  • DATA DIRECTORY, INDEX DIRECTORY and ENCRYPTION options in CREATE TABLE statements will be commented out.

In order to use Inbound Replication into an MySQL HeatWave Service DB System instance with High Availability where instance has version older than 8.0.32, all tables at the source server need to have Primary Keys. This needs to be fixed manually before running the dump. Starting with MySQL 8.0.23 invisible columns may be used to add Primary Keys without changing the schema compatibility, for more information see: https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/en/invisible-columns.html.

In order to use Inbound Replication into an MySQL HeatWave Service DB System instance with High Availability, please see https://docs.oracle.com/en-us/iaas/mysql-database/doc/creating-replication-channel.html.

In order to use MySQL HeatWave Service DB Service instance with High Availability, all tables must have a Primary Key. This can be fixed automatically using the create_invisible_pks compatibility value.

Please refer to the MySQL HeatWave Service documentation for more information about restrictions and compatibility.

Dumping to a Bucket in the OCI Object Storage

There are 2 ways to create a dump in OCI Object Storage:

  • By using the standard client OCI configuration.
  • By using a Pre-Authenticated Request (PAR).

Dumping to OCI Object Storage using the client OCI configuration

The osBucketName option is used to indicate the connection is established using the locally configured OCI client profile.

If the osBucketName option is used, the dump is stored in the specified OCI bucket, connection is established using the local OCI profile. The directory structure is simulated within the object name.

The osNamespace, ociConfigFile and ociProfile options cannot be used if the osBucketName option is set to an empty string.

The osNamespace option overrides the OCI namespace obtained based on the tenancy ID from the local OCI profile.

Dumping to OCI Object Storage using Pre-Authenticated Request (PAR)

When using a PAR to create a dump, no client OCI configuration is needed to perform the dump operation. A bucket or prefix PAR with the following access types is required to perform a dump with this method:

  • Permit object reads and writes.
  • Enable object listing.

When using a bucket PAR, the generated PAR URL should be used as the output_url argument for the dump operation. i.e. the following is a bucket PAR to create dump at the root folder of the 'test' bucket:

https://*.objectstorage.*.oci.customer-oci.com/p/*/n/*/b/test/o/

When using a prefix PAR, the output_url argument should contain the PAR URL itself and the prefix used to generate it. i.e. the following is a prefix PAR to create a dump at the 'dump' folder of the 'test' bucket. The PAR was created using 'dump' as prefix:

https://*.objectstorage.*.oci.customer-oci.com/p/*/n/*/b/test/o/dump/

Note that both the bucket and the prefix PAR URLs must end with a slash, otherwise it will be considered invalid.

When using a PAR, a temporary directory is created to be used as staging area; each file is initially buffered to disk and then sent to the target bucket, deleting it when it is transferred.

This will be done on the system temporary directory, defined by any of the following environment variables:

  • POSIX: TMPDIR, TMP, TEMP, TEMPDIR. If none is defined, uses /tmp.
  • Windows: TMP, TEMP, USERPROFILE. If none is defined, uses the Windows directory.

Enabling dump loading using pre-authenticated requests

The loadDump utility supports loading a dump using a pre-authenticated request (PAR). The simplest way to do this is by providing a PAR to the location of the dump in a bucket, the PAR must be created with the following permissions:

  • Permits object reads
  • Enables object listing

The generated URL can be used to load the dump, see \? loadDump for more details.

Attention
The ociParManifest and ociParExpireTime options described below are deprecated and will be removed in a future release.

Another way to enable loading a dump without requiring an OCI Profile, is to execute the dump operations enabling the ociParManifest option which will cause the dump operation automatically generates a PAR for every file in the dump, and will store them as part of the dump in a file named "@.manifest.json". The manifest is updated as the dump operation progresses.

Using a PAR with permissions to read the manifest is another option to load the dump using PAR.

The ociParManifest option cannot be used if osBucketName is not set.

When creating PARs, an expiration time is required, it can be defined through the ociParExpireTime option. If the option is not used, a predefined expiration time will be used equivalent to a week after the dump operation started. The values assigned to this option should be conformant to RFC3339.

The ociParExpireTime option cannot be used if the ociParManifest option is not enabled.

Dumping to a Bucket in the AWS S3 Object Storage

If the s3BucketName option is used, the dump is stored in the specified AWS S3 bucket. Connection is established using default local AWS configuration paths and profiles, unless overridden. The directory structure is simulated within the object name.

The s3CredentialsFile, s3ConfigFile, s3Profile, s3Region and s3EndpointOverride options cannot be used if the s3BucketName option is not set or set to an empty string.

Handling of the AWS settings

The AWS options are evaluated in the order of precedence, the first available value is used.

  1. Name of the AWS profile:
    • the s3Profile option
    • the AWS_PROFILE environment variable
    • the AWS_DEFAULT_PROFILE environment variable
    • the default value of default
  2. Location of the credentials file:
    • the s3CredentialsFile option
    • the AWS_SHARED_CREDENTIALS_FILE environment variable
    • the default value of ~/.aws/credentials
  3. Location of the config file:
    • the s3ConfigFile option
    • the AWS_CONFIG_FILE environment variable
    • the default value of ~/.aws/config
  4. Name of the AWS region:
    • the s3Region option
    • the AWS_REGION environment variable
    • the AWS_DEFAULT_REGION environment variable
    • the region setting from the config file for the specified profile
    • the default value of us-east-1
  5. URI of AWS S3 API endpoint
    • the s3EndpointOverride option
    • the default value of https://<s3BucketName>.s3.<region>.amazonaws.com

The AWS credentials are fetched from the following providers, in the order of precedence:

  1. Environment variables:
    • AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID
    • AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY
    • AWS_SESSION_TOKEN
  2. Settings from the credentials file for the specified profile:
    • aws_access_key_id
    • aws_secret_access_key
    • aws_session_token
  3. Process specified by the credential_process setting from the config file for the specified profile:
    • AccessKeyId
    • SecretAccessKey
    • SessionToken
  4. Settings from the config file for the specified profile:
    • aws_access_key_id
    • aws_secret_access_key
    • aws_session_token

The items specified above correspond to the following credentials:

  • the AWS access key
  • the secret key associated with the AWS access key
  • the AWS session token for the temporary security credentials

The process/command line specified by the credential_process setting must write a JSON object to the standard output in the following form:

{
"Version": 1,
"AccessKeyId": "AWS access key",
"SecretAccessKey": "secret key associated with the AWS access key",
"SessionToken": "temporary AWS session token, optional",
"Expiration": "RFC3339 timestamp, optional"
}

The Expiration key, if given, specifies when the credentials are going to expire, they will be automatically refreshed before this happens.

The following credential handling rules apply:

  • If the s3Profile option is set to a non-empty string, the environment variables are not used as a potential credential provider.
  • If either an access key or a secret key is available in a potential credential provider, it is selected as the credential provider.
  • If either the access key or the secret key is missing in the selected credential provider, an exception is thrown.
  • If the session token is missing in the selected credential provider, or if it is set to an empty string, it is not used to authenticate the user.

Dumping to a Container in the Azure Blob Storage

If the azureContainerName option is used, the dump is stored in the specified Azure container. Connection is established using the configuration at the local Azure configuration file.The directory structure is simulated within the blob name.

The azureConfigFile option cannot be used if the azureContainerName option is not set or set to an empty string.

Handling of the Azure settings

  1. The following settings are read from the storage section in the config file:
    • connection_string
    • account
    • key
    • sas_token
    Additionally, the connection options may be defined using the standard Azure environment variables:
    • AZURE_STORAGE_CONNECTION_STRING
    • AZURE_STORAGE_ACCOUNT
    • AZURE_STORAGE_KEY
    • AZURE_STORAGE_SAS_TOKEN
    The Azure configuration values are evaluated in the following precedence:
  • Options parameter
  • Environment Variables
  • Configuration File

If a connection string is defined either case in the environment variable or the configuration option, the individual configuration values for account and key will be ignored.

If a SAS Token is defined, it will be used for the authorization (ignoring any defined account key).

The default Azure Blob Endpoint to be used in the operations is defined by:

https://<account>.blob.core.windows.net

Unless a different EndPoint is defined in the connection string.

Exceptions
ArgumentErrorin the following scenarios:
  • If any of the input arguments contains an invalid value.
RuntimeErrorin the following scenarios:
  • If there is no open global session.
  • If creating the output directory fails.
  • If creating or writing to the output file fails.

◆ copyInstance()

Undefined copyInstance ( ConnectionData  connectionData,
Dictionary  options 
)

Copies a source instance to the target instance. Requires an open global Shell session to the source instance, if there is none, an exception is raised.

Parameters
connectionDataSpecifies the connection information required to establish a connection to the target instance.
optionsOptional dictionary with the copy options.

Runs simultaneous dump and load operations, while storing the dump artifacts in memory.

If target is a MySQL HeatWave Service DB System instance, automatically checks for compatibility with it.

The following options are supported:

  • excludeSchemas: list of strings (default: empty) - List of schemas to be excluded from the copy.
  • includeSchemas: list of strings (default: empty) - List of schemas to be included in the copy.
  • excludeTables: list of strings (default: empty) - List of tables or views to be excluded from the copy in the format of schema.table.
  • includeTables: list of strings (default: empty) - List of tables or views to be included in the copy in the format of schema.table.
  • events: bool (default: true) - Include events from each copied schema.
  • excludeEvents: list of strings (default: empty) - List of events to be excluded from the copy in the format of schema.event.
  • includeEvents: list of strings (default: empty) - List of events to be included in the copy in the format of schema.event.
  • routines: bool (default: true) - Include functions and stored procedures for each copied schema.
  • excludeRoutines: list of strings (default: empty) - List of routines to be excluded from the copy in the format of schema.routine.
  • includeRoutines: list of strings (default: empty) - List of routines to be included in the copy in the format of schema.routine.
  • users: bool (default: true) - Include users, roles and grants in the copy.
  • excludeUsers: list of strings (default not set) - Skip copying the specified users. Each user is in the format of 'user_name'[@'host']. If the host is not specified, all the accounts with the given user name are excluded.
  • includeUsers: list of strings (default not set) - Copy only the specified users. Each user is in the format of 'user_name'[@'host']. If the host is not specified, all the accounts with the given user name are included. By default, all users are included.
  • triggers: bool (default: true) - Include triggers for each copied table.
  • excludeTriggers: list of strings (default: empty) - List of triggers to be excluded from the copy in the format of schema.table (all triggers from the specified table) or schema.table.trigger (the individual trigger).
  • includeTriggers: list of strings (default: empty) - List of triggers to be included in the copy in the format of schema.table (all triggers from the specified table) or schema.table.trigger (the individual trigger).
  • where: dictionary (default: not set) - A key-value pair of a table name in the format of schema.table and a valid SQL condition expression used to filter the data being copied.
  • partitions: dictionary (default: not set) - A key-value pair of a table name in the format of schema.table and a list of valid partition names used to limit the data copy to just the specified partitions.
  • compatibility: list of strings (default: empty) - Apply MySQL HeatWave Service compatibility modifications when copying the DDL. Supported values: "create_invisible_pks", "force_innodb", "ignore_missing_pks", "ignore_wildcard_grants", "skip_invalid_accounts", "strip_definers", "strip_invalid_grants", "strip_restricted_grants", "strip_tablespaces".
  • tzUtc: bool (default: true) - Convert TIMESTAMP data to UTC.
  • consistent: bool (default: true) - Enable or disable consistent data copies. When enabled, produces a transactionally consistent copy at a specific point in time.
  • skipConsistencyChecks: bool (default: false) - Skips additional consistency checks which are executed when running consistent copies and i.e. backup lock cannot not be acquired.
  • ddlOnly: bool (default: false) - Only copy Data Definition Language (DDL) from the database.
  • dataOnly: bool (default: false) - Only copy data from the database.
  • checksum: bool (default: false) - Compute checksums of the data and verify tables in the target instance against these checksums.
  • dryRun: bool (default: false) - Simulates a copy and prints everything that would be performed, without actually doing so. If target is MySQL HeatWave Service, also checks for compatibility issues.
  • chunking: bool (default: true) - Enable chunking of the tables.
  • bytesPerChunk: string (default: "64M") - Sets average estimated number of bytes to be copied in each chunk, enables chunking.
  • threads: int (default: 4) - Use N threads to read the data from the source server and additional N threads to write the data to the target server.
  • maxRate: string (default: "0") - Limit data read throughput to maximum rate, measured in bytes per second per thread. Use maxRate="0" to set no limit.
  • showProgress: bool (default: true if stdout is a TTY device, false otherwise) - Enable or disable copy progress information.
  • defaultCharacterSet: string (default: "utf8mb4") - Character set used for the copy.
  • analyzeTables: "off", "on", "histogram" (default: off) - If 'on', executes ANALYZE TABLE for all tables, once copied. If set to 'histogram', only tables that have histogram information stored in the copy will be analyzed.
  • deferTableIndexes: "off", "fulltext", "all" (default: fulltext) - If "all", creation of "all" indexes except PRIMARY is deferred until after table data is copied, which in many cases can reduce load times. If "fulltext", only full-text indexes will be deferred.
  • handleGrantErrors: "abort", "drop_account", "ignore" (default: abort)
    • Specifies action to be performed in case of errors related to the GRANT/REVOKE statements, "abort": throws an error and aborts the copy, "drop_account": deletes the problematic account and continues, "ignore": ignores the error and continues copying the account.
  • ignoreExistingObjects: bool (default false) - Load the copy even if it contains objects that already exist in the target database.
  • ignoreVersion: bool (default false) - Load the copy even if the major version number of the server where it was created is different from where it will be loaded.
  • loadIndexes: bool (default: true) - use together with deferTableIndexes to control whether secondary indexes should be recreated at the end of the copy.
  • maxBytesPerTransaction: string (default: the value of bytesPerChunk) - Specifies the maximum number of bytes that can be copied per single LOAD DATA statement. Supports unit suffixes: k (kilobytes), M (Megabytes), G (Gigabytes). Minimum value: 4096.
  • schema: string (default not set) - Copy the data into the given schema. This option can only be used when copying just one schema.
  • sessionInitSql: list of strings (default: []) - execute the given list of SQL statements in each session about to copy data.
  • skipBinlog: bool (default: false) - Disables the binary log for the MySQL sessions used by the loader (set sql_log_bin=0).
  • updateGtidSet: "off", "replace", "append" (default: off) - if set to a value other than 'off' updates GTID_PURGED by either replacing its contents or appending to it the gtid set present in the copy.

For discussion of all options see: dumpInstance() and loadDump().

◆ copySchemas()

Undefined copySchemas ( List  schemas,
ConnectionData  connectionData,
Dictionary  options 
)

Copies schemas from the source instance to the target instance. Requires an open global Shell session to the source instance, if there is none, an exception is raised.

Parameters
schemasList of strings with names of schemas to be copied.
connectionDataSpecifies the connection information required to establish a connection to the target instance.
optionsOptional dictionary with the copy options.

Runs simultaneous dump and load operations, while storing the dump artifacts in memory.

If target is a MySQL HeatWave Service DB System instance, automatically checks for compatibility with it.

The following options are supported:

  • excludeTables: list of strings (default: empty) - List of tables or views to be excluded from the copy in the format of schema.table.
  • includeTables: list of strings (default: empty) - List of tables or views to be included in the copy in the format of schema.table.
  • events: bool (default: true) - Include events from each copied schema.
  • excludeEvents: list of strings (default: empty) - List of events to be excluded from the copy in the format of schema.event.
  • includeEvents: list of strings (default: empty) - List of events to be included in the copy in the format of schema.event.
  • routines: bool (default: true) - Include functions and stored procedures for each copied schema.
  • excludeRoutines: list of strings (default: empty) - List of routines to be excluded from the copy in the format of schema.routine.
  • includeRoutines: list of strings (default: empty) - List of routines to be included in the copy in the format of schema.routine.
  • triggers: bool (default: true) - Include triggers for each copied table.
  • excludeTriggers: list of strings (default: empty) - List of triggers to be excluded from the copy in the format of schema.table (all triggers from the specified table) or schema.table.trigger (the individual trigger).
  • includeTriggers: list of strings (default: empty) - List of triggers to be included in the copy in the format of schema.table (all triggers from the specified table) or schema.table.trigger (the individual trigger).
  • where: dictionary (default: not set) - A key-value pair of a table name in the format of schema.table and a valid SQL condition expression used to filter the data being copied.
  • partitions: dictionary (default: not set) - A key-value pair of a table name in the format of schema.table and a list of valid partition names used to limit the data copy to just the specified partitions.
  • compatibility: list of strings (default: empty) - Apply MySQL HeatWave Service compatibility modifications when copying the DDL. Supported values: "create_invisible_pks", "force_innodb", "ignore_missing_pks", "ignore_wildcard_grants", "skip_invalid_accounts", "strip_definers", "strip_invalid_grants", "strip_restricted_grants", "strip_tablespaces".
  • tzUtc: bool (default: true) - Convert TIMESTAMP data to UTC.
  • consistent: bool (default: true) - Enable or disable consistent data copies. When enabled, produces a transactionally consistent copy at a specific point in time.
  • skipConsistencyChecks: bool (default: false) - Skips additional consistency checks which are executed when running consistent copies and i.e. backup lock cannot not be acquired.
  • ddlOnly: bool (default: false) - Only copy Data Definition Language (DDL) from the database.
  • dataOnly: bool (default: false) - Only copy data from the database.
  • checksum: bool (default: false) - Compute checksums of the data and verify tables in the target instance against these checksums.
  • dryRun: bool (default: false) - Simulates a copy and prints everything that would be performed, without actually doing so. If target is MySQL HeatWave Service, also checks for compatibility issues.
  • chunking: bool (default: true) - Enable chunking of the tables.
  • bytesPerChunk: string (default: "64M") - Sets average estimated number of bytes to be copied in each chunk, enables chunking.
  • threads: int (default: 4) - Use N threads to read the data from the source server and additional N threads to write the data to the target server.
  • maxRate: string (default: "0") - Limit data read throughput to maximum rate, measured in bytes per second per thread. Use maxRate="0" to set no limit.
  • showProgress: bool (default: true if stdout is a TTY device, false otherwise) - Enable or disable copy progress information.
  • defaultCharacterSet: string (default: "utf8mb4") - Character set used for the copy.
  • analyzeTables: "off", "on", "histogram" (default: off) - If 'on', executes ANALYZE TABLE for all tables, once copied. If set to 'histogram', only tables that have histogram information stored in the copy will be analyzed.
  • deferTableIndexes: "off", "fulltext", "all" (default: fulltext) - If "all", creation of "all" indexes except PRIMARY is deferred until after table data is copied, which in many cases can reduce load times. If "fulltext", only full-text indexes will be deferred.
  • handleGrantErrors: "abort", "drop_account", "ignore" (default: abort)
    • Specifies action to be performed in case of errors related to the GRANT/REVOKE statements, "abort": throws an error and aborts the copy, "drop_account": deletes the problematic account and continues, "ignore": ignores the error and continues copying the account.
  • ignoreExistingObjects: bool (default false) - Load the copy even if it contains objects that already exist in the target database.
  • ignoreVersion: bool (default false) - Load the copy even if the major version number of the server where it was created is different from where it will be loaded.
  • loadIndexes: bool (default: true) - use together with deferTableIndexes to control whether secondary indexes should be recreated at the end of the copy.
  • maxBytesPerTransaction: string (default: the value of bytesPerChunk) - Specifies the maximum number of bytes that can be copied per single LOAD DATA statement. Supports unit suffixes: k (kilobytes), M (Megabytes), G (Gigabytes). Minimum value: 4096.
  • schema: string (default not set) - Copy the data into the given schema. This option can only be used when copying just one schema.
  • sessionInitSql: list of strings (default: []) - execute the given list of SQL statements in each session about to copy data.
  • skipBinlog: bool (default: false) - Disables the binary log for the MySQL sessions used by the loader (set sql_log_bin=0).
  • updateGtidSet: "off", "replace", "append" (default: off) - if set to a value other than 'off' updates GTID_PURGED by either replacing its contents or appending to it the gtid set present in the copy.

For discussion of all options see: dumpSchemas() and loadDump().

◆ copyTables()

Undefined copyTables ( String  schema,
List  tables,
ConnectionData  connectionData,
Dictionary  options 
)

Copies tables and views from schema in the source instance to the target instance. Requires an open global Shell session to the source instance, if there is none, an exception is raised.

Parameters
schemaName of the schema that contains tables and views to be copied.
tablesList of strings with names of tables and views to be copied.
connectionDataSpecifies the connection information required to establish a connection to the target instance.
optionsOptional dictionary with the copy options.

Runs simultaneous dump and load operations, while storing the dump artifacts in memory.

If target is a MySQL HeatWave Service DB System instance, automatically checks for compatibility with it.

The following options are supported:

  • all: bool (default: false) - Copy all views and tables from the specified schema, requires the tables argument to be an empty list.
  • triggers: bool (default: true) - Include triggers for each copied table.
  • excludeTriggers: list of strings (default: empty) - List of triggers to be excluded from the copy in the format of schema.table (all triggers from the specified table) or schema.table.trigger (the individual trigger).
  • includeTriggers: list of strings (default: empty) - List of triggers to be included in the copy in the format of schema.table (all triggers from the specified table) or schema.table.trigger (the individual trigger).
  • where: dictionary (default: not set) - A key-value pair of a table name in the format of schema.table and a valid SQL condition expression used to filter the data being copied.
  • partitions: dictionary (default: not set) - A key-value pair of a table name in the format of schema.table and a list of valid partition names used to limit the data copy to just the specified partitions.
  • compatibility: list of strings (default: empty) - Apply MySQL HeatWave Service compatibility modifications when copying the DDL. Supported values: "create_invisible_pks", "force_innodb", "ignore_missing_pks", "ignore_wildcard_grants", "skip_invalid_accounts", "strip_definers", "strip_invalid_grants", "strip_restricted_grants", "strip_tablespaces".
  • tzUtc: bool (default: true) - Convert TIMESTAMP data to UTC.
  • consistent: bool (default: true) - Enable or disable consistent data copies. When enabled, produces a transactionally consistent copy at a specific point in time.
  • skipConsistencyChecks: bool (default: false) - Skips additional consistency checks which are executed when running consistent copies and i.e. backup lock cannot not be acquired.
  • ddlOnly: bool (default: false) - Only copy Data Definition Language (DDL) from the database.
  • dataOnly: bool (default: false) - Only copy data from the database.
  • checksum: bool (default: false) - Compute checksums of the data and verify tables in the target instance against these checksums.
  • dryRun: bool (default: false) - Simulates a copy and prints everything that would be performed, without actually doing so. If target is MySQL HeatWave Service, also checks for compatibility issues.
  • chunking: bool (default: true) - Enable chunking of the tables.
  • bytesPerChunk: string (default: "64M") - Sets average estimated number of bytes to be copied in each chunk, enables chunking.
  • threads: int (default: 4) - Use N threads to read the data from the source server and additional N threads to write the data to the target server.
  • maxRate: string (default: "0") - Limit data read throughput to maximum rate, measured in bytes per second per thread. Use maxRate="0" to set no limit.
  • showProgress: bool (default: true if stdout is a TTY device, false otherwise) - Enable or disable copy progress information.
  • defaultCharacterSet: string (default: "utf8mb4") - Character set used for the copy.
  • analyzeTables: "off", "on", "histogram" (default: off) - If 'on', executes ANALYZE TABLE for all tables, once copied. If set to 'histogram', only tables that have histogram information stored in the copy will be analyzed.
  • deferTableIndexes: "off", "fulltext", "all" (default: fulltext) - If "all", creation of "all" indexes except PRIMARY is deferred until after table data is copied, which in many cases can reduce load times. If "fulltext", only full-text indexes will be deferred.
  • handleGrantErrors: "abort", "drop_account", "ignore" (default: abort)
    • Specifies action to be performed in case of errors related to the GRANT/REVOKE statements, "abort": throws an error and aborts the copy, "drop_account": deletes the problematic account and continues, "ignore": ignores the error and continues copying the account.
  • ignoreExistingObjects: bool (default false) - Load the copy even if it contains objects that already exist in the target database.
  • ignoreVersion: bool (default false) - Load the copy even if the major version number of the server where it was created is different from where it will be loaded.
  • loadIndexes: bool (default: true) - use together with deferTableIndexes to control whether secondary indexes should be recreated at the end of the copy.
  • maxBytesPerTransaction: string (default: the value of bytesPerChunk) - Specifies the maximum number of bytes that can be copied per single LOAD DATA statement. Supports unit suffixes: k (kilobytes), M (Megabytes), G (Gigabytes). Minimum value: 4096.
  • schema: string (default not set) - Copy the data into the given schema. This option can only be used when copying just one schema.
  • sessionInitSql: list of strings (default: []) - execute the given list of SQL statements in each session about to copy data.
  • skipBinlog: bool (default: false) - Disables the binary log for the MySQL sessions used by the loader (set sql_log_bin=0).
  • updateGtidSet: "off", "replace", "append" (default: off) - if set to a value other than 'off' updates GTID_PURGED by either replacing its contents or appending to it the gtid set present in the copy.

For discussion of all options see: dumpTables() and loadDump().