MySQL Internals Manual  /  InnoDB Source Code Distribution

Appendix B InnoDB Source Code Distribution

The InnoDB source files are the best place to look for information about internals of the file structure that MySQLers can optionally use for transaction support. But when you first look at all the subdirectories and file names you'll wonder: Where Do I Start? It can be daunting.

Well, I've been through that phase, so I'll pass on what I had to learn on the first day that I looked at InnoDB source files. I am very sure that this will help you grasp, in overview, the organization of InnoDB modules. I'm also going to add comments about what is going on -- which you should mistrust! These comments are reasonable working hypotheses; nevertheless, they have not been subjected to expert peer review.

Here's how I'm going to organize the discussion. I'll take each of the 31 InnoDB subdirectories that come with the MySQL 5.0 source code in \innobase (on my Windows directory). The format of each section will be like this every time:

\subdirectory-name (LONGER EXPLANATORY NAME)

File NameWhat Name Stands ForSizeComment Inside File

... My-Comments

For example:

"\ha (HASHING)
  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size     Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------   -------------------
  ha0ha.c     Hashing/Hashing        8,145   Hash table with external chains

  Comments about hashing will be here.

The "Comment Inside File" column is a direct copy from the first /* comment */ line inside the file. All other comments are mine. After I've discussed each directory, I'll finish with some notes about naming conventions and a short list of URLs that you can use for further reference.

Now let's begin.

\btr (B-TREE)

  File Name   What Name Stands For         Size     Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------         ------   -------------------
  btr0btr.c   B-tree / B-tree              82,400   B-tree
  btr0cur.c   B-tree / Cursor             103,233   index tree cursor
  btr0sea.c   B-tree / Search              41,788   index tree adaptive search
  btr0pcur.c  B-tree / persistent cursor   16,720   index tree persistent cursor

If you total up the sizes of the C files, you'll see that \btr is the second-largest file group in InnoDB. This is understandable because maintaining a B-tree is a relatively complex task. Luckily, there has been a lot of work done to describe efficient management of B-tree and B+-tree structures, much of it open-source or public-domain, since their original invention over thirty years ago.

InnoDB likes to put everything in B-trees. This is what I'd call a "distinguishing characteristic" because in all the major DBMSs (like IBM DB2, Microsoft SQL Server, and Oracle), the main or default or classic structure is the heap-and-index. In InnoDB the main structure is just the index. To put it another way: InnoDB keeps the rows in the leaf node of the index, rather than in a separate file. Compare Oracle's Index Organized Tables, and Microsoft SQL Server's Clustered Indexes.

This, by the way, has some consequences. For example, you may as well have a primary key since otherwise InnoDB will make one anyway. And that primary key should be the shortest of the candidate keys, since InnoDB will use it as a pointer if there are secondary indexes.

Most importantly, it means that rows have no fixed address. Therefore the routines for managing file pages should be good. We'll see about that when we look at the \row (ROW) program group later.


  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size     Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------   -------------------
  buf0buf.c   Buffering / Buffering 65,582   The database buffer buf_pool
  buf0flu.c   Buffering / Flush     29,583   ... flush algorithm
  buf0lru.c   / least-recently-used 27,515   ... replacement algorithm
  buf0rea.c   Buffering / read      21,504   ... read

There is a separate file group (\mem MEMORY) which handles memory requests in general. A "buffer" usually has a more specific definition, as a memory area which contains copies of pages that ordinarily are in the main data file. The "buffer pool" is the set of all buffers (there are lots of them because InnoDB doesn't depend on the operating system's caching to make things faster).

The pool size is fixed (at the time of this writing) but the rest of the buffering architecture is sophisticated, involving a host of control structures. In general: when InnoDB needs to access a new page it looks first in the buffer pool; InnoDB reads from disk to a new buffer when the page isn't there; InnoDB chucks old buffers (basing its decision on a conventional Least-Recently-Used algorithm) when it has to make space for a new buffer.

There are routines for checking a page's validity, and for read-ahead. An example of "read-ahead" use: if a sequential scan is going on, then a DBMS can read more than one page at a time, which is efficient because reading 32,768 bytes (two pages) takes less than twice as long as reading 16,384 bytes (one page).

\data (DATA)

  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size     Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------   -------------------
  data0data.c Data / Data           15,344   SQL data field and tuple
  data0type.c Data / Type            7,417   Data types

This is a collection of minor utility routines affecting rows.


There are no .c files in \db, just one .h file with some definitions for error codes.


  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size     Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------   -------------------
  dict0dict.c Dictionary / Dictionary 114,263 Data dictionary system
  dict0boot.c Dictionary / boot     11,704   ... booting
  dict0crea.c Dictionary / Create   37,278   ... creation
  dict0load.c Dictionary / load     34,049   ... load to memory cache
  dict0mem.c  Dictionary / memory    7,470   ... memory object creation

The data dictionary (known in some circles as the catalog) has the metadata information about objects in the database --- column sizes, table names, and the like.


  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size     Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------   -------------------
  dyn0dyn.c   Dynamic / Dynamic        994   dynamically allocated array

There is a single function in the dyn0dyn.c program, for adding a block to the dynamically allocated array. InnoDB might use the array for managing concurrency between threads.

At the moment, the \dyn program group is trivial.


  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size    Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------  -------------------
  eval0eval.c Evaluating/Evaluating 17,061  SQL evaluator
  eval0proc.c Evaluating/Procedures  5,001  Executes SQL procedures

The evaluating step is a late part of the process of interpreting an SQL statement --- parsing has already occurred during \pars (PARSING).

The ability to execute SQL stored procedures is an InnoDB feature, but MySQL handles stored procedures in its own way, so the eval0proc.c program is unimportant.

\fil (FILE)

  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size     Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------   -------------------
  fil0fil.c   File / File          118,312   The low-level file system

The reads and writes to the database files happen here, in coordination with the low-level file i/o routines (see os0file.c in the \os program group).

Briefly: a table's contents are in pages, which are in files, which are in tablespaces. Files do not grow; instead one can add new files to the tablespace. As we saw earlier (discussing the \btr program group) the pages are nodes of B-trees. Since that's the case, new additions can happen at various places in the logical file structure, not necessarily at the end. Reads and writes are asynchronous, and go into buffers, which are set up by routines in the \buf program group.


  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size     Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------   -------------------
  fsp0fsp.c   File Space Management 110,495  File space management

I would have thought that the \fil (FILE) and \fsp (FILE SPACE) MANAGEMENT programs would fit together in the same program group; however, I guess the InnoDB folk are splitters rather than lumpers.

It's in fsp0fsp.c that one finds some of the descriptions and comments of extents, segments, and headers. For example, the "descriptor bitmap of the pages in the extent" is in here, and you can find as well how the free-page list is maintained, what's in the bitmaps, and what various header fields' contents are.


  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size     Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------   -------------------
  fut0fut.c   File Utility / Utility   293   File-based utilities
  fut0lst.c   File Utility / List   14,176   File-based list utilities

Mainly these small programs affect only file-based lists, so maybe saying "File Utility" is too generic. The real work with data files goes on in the \fsp program group.


  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size     Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------   -------------------
  ha0ha.c     Hashing / Hashing      8,145   Hash table with external chains
  hash0hash.c Hashing / Hashing      3,283   Simple hash table utility

The two C programs in the \ha directory --- ha0ha.c and hash0hash.c --- both refer to a "hash table" but hash0hash.c is specialized, it is mostly about accessing points in the table under mutex control.

When a "database" is so small that InnoDB can load it all into memory at once, it's more efficient to access it via a hash table. After all, no disk i/o can be saved by using an index lookup, if there's no disk.


  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size     Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------   -------------------
  ibuf0ibuf.c Insert Buffer /       91,397   Insert buffer

The words "Insert Buffer" mean not "buffer used for INSERT" but "insertion of a buffer into the buffer pool" (see the \buf BUFFER program group description). The matter is complex due to possibilities for deadlocks, a problem to which the comments in the ibuf0ibuf.c program devote considerable attention.

\include (INCLUDE)

All .h and .ic files are in the \include directory. It's habitual to put comments along with the descriptions, so if (for example) you want to see comments about operating system file activity, the place to look is \include\os0file.h.

\lock (LOCKING)

  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size    Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------  -------------------
  lock0lock.c Lock / Lock           139,207 The transaction lock system

If you've used DB2 or SQL Server, you might think that locks have their own in-memory table, that row locks might need occasional escalation to table locks, and that there are three lock types: Shared, Update, Exclusive.

All those things are untrue with InnoDB! Locks are kept in the database pages. A bunch of row locks can't be rolled together into a single table lock. And most importantly there's only one lock type. I call this type "Update" because it has the characteristics of DB2 / SQL Server Update locks, that is, it blocks other updates but doesn't block reads. Unfortunately, InnoDB comments refer to them as "x-locks" etc.

To sum it up: if your background is Oracle you won't find too much surprising, but if your background is DB2 or SQL Server the locking concepts and terminology will probably confuse you at first.

You can find my online article about the differences between Oracle-style and DB2/SQL-Server-style locks at:

Now here is a notice from Heikki Tuuri of InnoDB. It concerns lock categories rather than lock0lock.c, but I place it in this section because this is the place that people are most likely to look for it.

Errata notice about InnoDB row locks:

  #define LOCK_S  4 /* shared */
  #define LOCK_X  5 /* exclusive */
/* Waiting lock flag */
  #define LOCK_WAIT 256
/* this wait bit should be so high that it can be ORed to the lock
mode and type; when this bit is set, it means that the lock has not
yet been granted, it is just waiting for its turn in the wait queue */
/* Precise modes */
  #define LOCK_ORDINARY 0
/* this flag denotes an ordinary next-key lock in contrast to LOCK_GAP
  #define LOCK_GAP 512
/* this gap bit should be so high that it can be ORed to the other
flags; when this bit is set, it means that the lock holds only on the
gap before the record; for instance, an x-lock on the gap does not
give permission to modify the record on which the bit is set; locks of
this type are created when records are removed from the index chain of
records */
  #define LOCK_REC_NOT_GAP 1024
/* this bit means that the lock is only on the index record and does
NOT block inserts to the gap before the index record; this is used in
the case when we retrieve a record with a unique key, and is also used
in locking plain SELECTs (not part of UPDATE or DELETE) when the user
has set the READ COMMITTED isolation level */
/* this bit is set when we place a waiting gap type record lock
request in order to let an insert of an index record to wait until
there are no conflicting locks by other transactions on the gap; note
that this flag remains set when the waiting lock is granted, or if the
lock is inherited to a neighboring record */

Errata notice about InnoDB row locks ends.

\log (LOGGING)

  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size     Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------   -------------------
  log0log.c   Logging / Logging     86,043   Database log
  log0recv.c  Logging / Recovery    91,352   Recovery

I've already written about the \log program group, so here's a link to my previous article: "How Logs work with MySQL and InnoDB":


  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size    Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------  -------------------
  mach0data.c Machine/Data           2,335  Utilities for converting

The mach0data.c program has two small routines for reading compressed ulints (unsigned long integers).

\mem (MEMORY)

  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size     Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------   -------------------
  mem0mem.c   Memory / Memory       10,310   The memory management
  mem0dbg.c   Memory / Debug        22,054   ... the debug code
  mem0pool.c  Memory / Pool         16,511   ... the lowest level

There is a long comment at the start of the mem0pool.c program, which explains what the memory-consumers are, and how InnoDB tries to satisfy them. The main thing to know is that there are really three pools: the buffer pool (see the \buf program group), the log pool (see the \log program group), and the common pool, which is where everything that's not in the buffer or log pools goes (for example the parsed SQL statements and the data dictionary cache).


  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size     Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------   -------------------
  mtr0mtr.c   Mini-transaction /    12,620   Mini-transaction buffer
  mtr0log.c   Mini-transaction / Log 8,090   ... log routines

The mini-transaction routines are called from most of the other program groups. I'd describe this as a low-level utility set.


  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size     Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------   -------------------
  os0file.c   OS / File            104,081   To i/o primitives
  os0thread.c OS / Thread            7,754   To thread control primitives
  os0proc.c   OS / Process          16,919   To process control primitives
  os0sync.c   OS / Synchronization  14,256   To synchronization primitives

This is a group of utilities that other modules may call whenever they want to use an operating-system resource. For example, in os0file.c there is a public InnoDB function named os_file_create_simple(), which simply calls the Windows-API function CreateFile. Naturally the call is within an "#ifdef __WIN__ ... #endif" block; the effective routines are somewhat different for other operating systems.

\page (PAGE)

  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size    Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------  -------------------
  page0page.c Page / Page           51,731  Index page routines
  page0cur.c  Page / Cursor         38,127  The page cursor

It's in the page0page.c program that you'll learn as follows: index pages start with a header, entries in the page are in order, at the end of the page is a sparse "page directory" (what I would have called a slot table) which makes binary searches easier.

Incidentally, the program comments refer to "a page size of 8 kB" which seems obsolete. In univ.i (a file containing universal constants) the page size is now #defined as 16KB.

\pars (PARSING)

  File Name   What Name Stands For Size    Comment Inside File
  ---------   -------------------- ------  -------------------
  pars0pars.c Parsing/Parsing      45,376  SQL parser
  pars0grm.c  Parsing/Grammar      62,685  A Bison parser
  pars0opt.c  Parsing/Optimizer    31,268  Simple SQL Optimizer
  pars0sym.c  Parsing/Symbol Table  5,239  SQL parser symbol table
  lexyy.c     Parsing/Lexer        62,071  Lexical scanner

The job is to input a string containing an SQL statement and output an in-memory parse tree. The EVALUATING (subdirectory \eval) programs will use the tree.

As is common practice, the Bison and Flex tools were used --- pars0grm.c is what the Bison parser produced from an original file named pars0grm.y (also supplied), and lexyy.c is what Flex produced.

Since InnoDB is a DBMS by itself, it's natural to find SQL parsing in it. But in the MySQL/InnoDB combination, MySQL handles most of the parsing. These files are unimportant.


  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size     Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------   -------------------
  que0que.c   Query Graph / Query   30,774   Query graph

The program que0que.c ostensibly is about the execution of stored procedures which contain commit/rollback statements. I took it that this has little importance for the average MySQL user.

\read (READ)

  File Name   What Name Stands For Size    Comment Inside File
  ---------   -------------------- ------  -------------------
  read0read.c Read / Read           9,935  Cursor read

The read0read.c program opens a "read view" of a query result, using some functions in the \trx program group.


  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size     Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------   -------------------
  rem0rec.c   Record Manager        38,573   Record Manager
  rem0cmp.c   Record Manager /      26,617   Comparison services for records

There's an extensive comment near the start of rem0rec.c title "Physical Record" and it's recommended reading. At some point you'll ask what are all those bits that surround the data in the rows on a page, and this is where you'll find the answer.

\row (ROW)

  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size     Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------   -------------------
  row0row.c   Row / Row             18,375   General row routines
  row0uins.c  Row / Undo Insert      6,799   Fresh insert undo
  row0umod.c  Row / Undo Modify     19,712   Undo modify of a row
  row0undo.c  Row / Undo            10,512   Row undo
  row0vers.c  Row / Version         14,385   Row versions
  row0mysql.c Row / MySQL          112,462   Interface [to MySQL]
  row0ins.c   Row / Insert          42,829   Insert into a table
  row0sel.c   Row / Select         111,719   Select
  row0upd.c   Row / Update          51,824   Update of a row
  row0purge.c Row / Purge           15,609   Purge obsolete records

Rows can be selected, inserted, updated/deleted, or purged (a maintenance activity). These actions cause following actions, for example after insert there can be an index-update test, but it seems to me that sometimes the following action has no MySQL equivalent (yet) and so is inoperative.

Speaking of MySQL, notice that one of the larger programs in the \row program group is the "interface between Innobase row operations and MySQL" (row0mysql.c) --- information interchange happens at this level because rows in InnoDB and in MySQL are analogous, something which can't be said for pages and other levels.

\srv (Server)

  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size     Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------   -------------------
  srv0srv.c   Server / Server       75,633   Server main program
  srv0que.c   Server / Query         2,463   Server query execution
  srv0start.c Server / Start        50,154   Starts the server

This is where the server reads the initial configuration files, splits up the threads, and gets going. There is a long comment deep in the program (you might miss it at first glance) titled "IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SERVER MAIN PROGRAM" in which you'll find explanations about thread priority, and about what the responsibilities are for various thread types.

InnoDB has many threads, for example "user threads" (which wait for client requests and reply to them), "parallel communication threads" (which take part of a user thread's job if a query process can be split), "utility threads" (background priority), and a "master thread" (high priority, usually asleep).


  File Name   What Name Stands For Size    Comment Inside File
  ---------   -------------------- ------  -------------------
  sync0sync.c Synchronization /    37,940  Mutex, the basic sync primitive
  sync0arr.c  ... / array          26,455  Wait array used in primitives
  sync0rw.c   ... / read-write     22,846  read-write lock for thread sync

A mutex (Mutual Exclusion) is an object which only one thread/process can hold at a time. Any modern operating system API has some functions for mutexes; however, as the comments in the sync0sync.c code indicate, it can be faster to write one's own low-level mechanism. In fact the old assembly-language XCHG trick is in sync0sync.c's helper file, \include\sync0sync.ic. This is the only program that contains any assembly code.

The i/o and thread-control primitives are called extensively. The word "synchronization" in this context refers to the mutex-create and mutex-wait functionality.

\thr (Thread Local Storage)

  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size     Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------   -------------------
  thr0loc.c   Thread / Local         5,334   The thread local storage

InnoDB doesn't use the Windows-API thread-local-storage functions, perhaps because they're not portable enough.

\trx (Transaction)

  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size     Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------   -------------------
  trx0trx.c   Transaction /         50,480   The transaction
  trx0purge.c Transaction / Purge   29,133   ... Purge old versions
  trx0rec.c   Transaction / Record  37,346   ... Undo log record
  trx0roll.c  / Rollback            31,448   ... Rollback
  trx0sys.c   Transaction / System  27,018   ... System
  trx0rseg.c  / Rollback segment     6,445   ... Rollback segment
  trx0undo.c  Transaction / Undo    51,519   ... Undo log

InnoDB's transaction management is supposedly "in the style of Oracle" and that's close to true but can mislead you.

  • First: InnoDB uses rollback segments like Oracle8i does — but Oracle9i uses a different name.

  • Second: InnoDB uses multi-versioning like Oracle does — but I see nothing that looks like an Oracle ITL being stored in the InnoDB data pages.

  • Third: InnoDB and Oracle both have short (back-to-statement-start) versioning for the READ COMMITTED isolation level and long (back-to-transaction-start) versioning for higher levels — but InnoDB and Oracle have different "default" isolation levels.

  • Finally: InnoDB's documentation says it has to lock "the gaps before index keys" to prevent phantoms — but any Oracle user will tell you that phantoms are impossible anyway at the SERIALIZABLE isolation level, so key-locks are unnecessary.

The main idea, though, is that InnoDB has multi-versioning. So does Oracle. This is very different from the way that DB2 and SQL Server do things.

\usr (USER)

  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size     Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------   -------------------
  usr0sess.c  User / Session         1,740   Sessions

One user can have multiple sessions (the session being all the things that happen between a connect and disconnect). This is where InnoDB used to track session IDs, and server/client messaging. It's another of those items which is usually MySQL's job, though. So now usr0sess.c merely closes.


  File Name   What Name Stands For  Size     Comment Inside File
  ---------   --------------------  ------   -------------------
  ut0ut.c     Utilities / Utilities  9,728   Various utilities
  ut0byte.c   Utilities / Debug        793   Byte utilities
  ut0rnd.c    Utilities / Random     1,474   Random numbers and hashing
  ut0mem.c    Utilities / Memory    10,358   Memory primitives
  ut0dbg.c    Utilities / Debug      2,579   Debug utilities

The two functions in ut0byte.c are just for lower/upper case conversion and comparison. The single function in ut0rnd.c is for finding a prime slightly greater than the given argument, which is useful for hash functions, but unrelated to randomness. The functions in ut0mem.c are wrappers for "malloc" and "free" calls — for the real "memory" module see section \mem (MEMORY). Finally, the functions in ut0ut.c are a miscellany that didn't fit better elsewhere: get_high_bytes, clock, time, difftime, get_year_month_day, and "sprintf" for various diagnostic purposes.

In short: the \ut group is trivial.

This is the end of the section-by-section account of InnoDB subdirectories.

Some Notes About Structures

InnoDB's job, as a storage engine for MySQL, is to provide: commit-rollback, crash recovery, row-level locking, and consistent non-blocking reads. How? With locks, a paged-file structure with buffer pooling, and undo/redo logs,

The locks are kept in bit maps in main memory. Thus InnoDB differs from Oracle in one respect: instead of storing lock information on the page as Oracle does with Interested Transaction Lists, InnoDB keeps it in a separate and more volatile structure. But both Oracle and InnoDB try to achieve a similar goal: "writers don't block readers". So a typical InnoDB row-read involves: (a) if the reading is for writing, then check if the row is locked and if so wait; (b) if according to the information in the row header the row has been changed by some newer transaction, then get the older version from the log. We call the (b) part "versioning" because it means that a reader can get the older version of a row and thus will have a temporally consistent view of all rows.

The InnoDB workspace consists of: tablespace and log files. A tablespace consists of: segments, as many as necessary. A segment is usually a file, but might be a raw disk partition. A segment consists of: extents. An extent consists of: 64 pages. A page's length is always 16KB, for both data and index. A page consists of: a page header, and some rows. The page and row formats are the subjects of later chapters.

InnoDB keeps two logs, the redo log and the undo log.

The redo log is for re-doing data changes that had not been written to disk when a crash occurred. There is one redo log for the entire workspace, it contains multiple files (the number depends on innodb_log_files_in_group), it is circular (that is, after writing to the last file InnoDB starts again on the first file). The file header includes the last successful checkpoint. A redo log record's contents are: Page Number (4 bytes = page number within tablespace), Offset of change within page (2 bytes), Log Record Type (insert, update, delete, "fill space with blanks", etc.), and the changes on that page (only redo values, not old values).

The undo log is primarily for removing data changes that had been written to disk when a crash occurred, but should not have been written, because they were for uncommitted transactions. Sometimes InnoDB calls the undo log the "rollback segment". The undo log is inside the tablespace. The "insert" section of the undo log is needed only for transaction rollback and can be discarded at COMMIT time. The "update/delete" section of the undo log is also useful for consistent reads, and can be discarded when InnoDB has ended all transactions that might need the undo log records to reconstruct earlier versions of rows. An undo log record's contents are: Primary Key Value (not a page number or physical address), Old Transaction ID (of the transaction that updated the row), and the changes (only old values).

COMMIT will write the contents of the log buffer to disk, and put undo log records in a history list. ROLLBACK will delete undo log records that are no longer needed. PURGE (an internal operation that occurs outside user control) will no-longer-necessary undo log records and, for data records that have been marked for deletion and are no longer necessary for consistent read, will remove the records. CHECKPOINT causes -- well, see the article "How Logs Work On MySQL With InnoDB Tables".

A Note About File Naming

There appears to be a naming convention. The first letters of the file name are the same as the subdirectory name, then there is a '0' separator, then there is an individual name. For the main program in a subdirectory, the individual name may be a repeat of the subdirectory name. For example, there is a file named ha0ha.c (the first two letters ha mean "it's in subdirectory ..\ha", the next letter 0 means "0 separator", the next two letters mean "this is the main ha program"). This naming convention is not strict, though: for example the file lexyy.c is in the \pars subdirectory.

A Note About Copyrights

Most of the files begin with a copyright notice or a creation date, for example "Created 10/25/1995 Heikki Tuuri". I don't know a great deal about the history of InnoDB, but found it interesting that most creation dates were between 1994 and 1998.


Download this Manual
EPUB - 0.8Mb
User Comments
Sign Up Login You must be logged in to post a comment.