Documentation Home
MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual
Related Documentation Download this Manual
PDF (US Ltr) - 32.6Mb
PDF (A4) - 32.6Mb
PDF (RPM) - 30.6Mb
HTML Download (TGZ) - 7.8Mb
HTML Download (Zip) - 7.9Mb
HTML Download (RPM) - 6.7Mb
Man Pages (TGZ) - 143.2Kb
Man Pages (Zip) - 202.4Kb
Info (Gzip) - 3.0Mb
Info (Zip) - 3.0Mb


MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual  /  ...  /  Optimizing Subqueries, Derived Tables, View References, and Common Table Expressions with Semi-Join Transformations

Pre-General Availability Draft: 2017-06-23

8.2.2.1 Optimizing Subqueries, Derived Tables, View References, and Common Table Expressions with Semi-Join Transformations

The optimizer uses semi-join strategies to improve subquery execution, as described in this section.

For an inner join between two tables, the join returns a row from one table as many times as there are matches in the other table. But for some questions, the only information that matters is whether there is a match, not the number of matches. Suppose that there are tables named class and roster that list classes in a course curriculum and class rosters (students enrolled in each class), respectively. To list the classes that actually have students enrolled, you could use this join:

SELECT class.class_num, class.class_name
FROM class INNER JOIN roster
WHERE class.class_num = roster.class_num;

However, the result lists each class once for each enrolled student. For the question being asked, this is unnecessary duplication of information.

Assuming that class_num is a primary key in the class table, duplicate suppression is possible by using SELECT DISTINCT, but it is inefficient to generate all matching rows first only to eliminate duplicates later.

The same duplicate-free result can be obtained by using a subquery:

SELECT class_num, class_name
FROM class
WHERE class_num IN (SELECT class_num FROM roster);

Here, the optimizer can recognize that the IN clause requires the subquery to return only one instance of each class number from the roster table. In this case, the query can use a semi-join; that is, an operation that returns only one instance of each row in class that is matched by rows in roster.

Outer join and inner join syntax is permitted in the outer query specification, and table references may be base tables, derived tables, view references, or common table expressions.

In MySQL, a subquery must satisfy these criteria to be handled as a semi-join:

  • It must be an IN (or =ANY) subquery that appears at the top level of the WHERE or ON clause, possibly as a term in an AND expression. For example:

    SELECT ...
    FROM ot1, ...
    WHERE (oe1, ...) IN (SELECT ie1, ... FROM it1, ... WHERE ...);

    Here, ot_i and it_i represent tables in the outer and inner parts of the query, and oe_i and ie_i represent expressions that refer to columns in the outer and inner tables.

  • It must be a single SELECT without UNION constructs.

  • It must not contain a GROUP BY or HAVING clause.

  • It must not be implicitly grouped (it must contain no aggregate functions).

  • It must not have ORDER BY with LIMIT.

  • The statement must not use the STRAIGHT_JOIN join type in the outer query.

  • The STRAIGHT_JOIN modifier must not be present.

  • The number of outer and inner tables together must be less than the maximum number of tables permitted in a join.

The subquery may be correlated or uncorrelated. DISTINCT is permitted, as is LIMIT unless ORDER BY is also used.

If a subquery meets the preceding criteria, MySQL converts it to a semi-join and makes a cost-based choice from these strategies:

  • Convert the subquery to a join, or use table pullout and run the query as an inner join between subquery tables and outer tables. Table pullout pulls a table out from the subquery to the outer query.

  • Duplicate Weedout: Run the semi-join as if it was a join and remove duplicate records using a temporary table.

  • FirstMatch: When scanning the inner tables for row combinations and there are multiple instances of a given value group, choose one rather than returning them all. This "shortcuts" scanning and eliminates production of unnecessary rows.

  • LooseScan: Scan a subquery table using an index that enables a single value to be chosen from each subquery's value group.

  • Materialize the subquery into an indexed temporary table that is used to perform a join, where the index is used to remove duplicates. The index might also be used later for lookups when joining the temporary table with the outer tables; if not, the table is scanned. For more information about materialization, see Section 8.2.2.2, “Optimizing Subqueries with Materialization”.

Each of these strategies can be enabled or disabled using the following optimizer_switch system variable flags:

  • The semijoin flag controls whether semi-joins are used.

  • If semijoin is enabled, the firstmatch, loosescan, duplicateweedout, and materialization flags enable finer control over the permitted semi-join strategies.

  • If the duplicateweedout semi-join strategy is disabled, it is not used unless all other applicable strategies are also disabled.

  • If duplicateweedout is disabled, on occasion the optimizer may generate a query plan that is far from optimal. This occurs due to heuristic pruning during greedy search, which can be avoided by setting optimizer_prune_level=0.

These flags are enabled by default. See Section 8.9.3, “Switchable Optimizations”.

The optimizer minimizes differences in handling of views and derived tables (subqueries in the FROM clause). This affects queries that use the STRAIGHT_JOIN modifier and a view with an IN subquery that can be converted to a semi-join. The following query illustrates this because the change in processing causes a change in transformation, and thus a different execution strategy:

CREATE VIEW v AS
SELECT *
FROM t1
WHERE a IN (SELECT b
           FROM t2);

SELECT STRAIGHT_JOIN *
FROM t3 JOIN v ON t3.x = v.a;

The optimizer first looks at the view and converts the IN subquery to a semi-join, then checks whether it is possible to merge the view into the outer query. Because the STRAIGHT_JOIN modifier in the outer query prevents semi-join, the optimizer refuses the merge, causing derived table evaluation using a materialized table.

EXPLAIN output indicates the use of semi-join strategies as follows:

  • For extended EXPLAIN output, the text displayed by a following SHOW WARNINGS shows the rewritten query, which displays the semi-join structure. (See Section 8.8.3, “Extended EXPLAIN Output Format”.) From this you can get an idea about which tables were pulled out of the semi-join. If a subquery was converted to a semi-join, you will see that the subquery predicate is gone and its tables and WHERE clause were merged into the outer query join list and WHERE clause.

  • Temporary table use for Duplicate Weedout is indicated by Start temporary and End temporary in the Extra column. Tables that were not pulled out and are in the range of EXPLAIN output rows covered by Start temporary and End temporary have their rowid in the temporary table.

  • FirstMatch(tbl_name) in the Extra column indicates join shortcutting.

  • LooseScan(m..n) in the Extra column indicates use of the LooseScan strategy. m and n are key part numbers.

  • Temporary table use for materialization is indicated by rows with a select_type value of MATERIALIZED and rows with a table value of <subqueryN>.


User Comments
Sign Up Login You must be logged in to post a comment.