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MySQL 8.0 Reference Manual  /  ...  /  Handling an Unexpected Halt of a Replication Slave

17.3.2 Handling an Unexpected Halt of a Replication Slave

In order for replication to be resilient to unexpected halts of the server (sometimes described as crash-safe) it must be possible for the slave to recover its state before halting. This section describes the impact of an unexpected halt of a slave during replication and how to configure a slave for the best chance of recovery to continue replication.

After an unexpected halt of a slave, upon restart the I/O thread must recover the information about which transactions have been received, and the SQL thread must recover which transactions have been executed already. For information on the slave logs required for recovery, see Section 17.2.4, “Replication Relay and Status Logs”.

The information required for recovery is stored by default in InnoDB tables. By using this transactional storage engine the information is always recoverable upon restart. Previously, this information was stored by default in files in the data directory that were updated after the transaction had been applied. This held the risk of losing synchrony with the master depending at which stage of processing a transaction the slave halted at, or even corruption of the files themselves. The updates to the tables are committed together with the transaction, meaning that the information in them is always consistent with what has been applied to the database, even in the event of a server halt.

To configure MySQL 8.0 to store the replication information in tables, relay_log_info_repository and master_info_repository must be set to the default of TABLE. The server then stores information required for the recovery of the I/O thread in the mysql.slave_master_info table, and information required for the recovery of the SQL thread in the mysql.slave_relay_log_info table. The alternative setting FILE is now deprecated, and will be removed in a future release.

With this configuration, DML transactions and also atomic DDL make the following three updates together, atomically:

  • Apply the transaction on the database.

  • Update the replication positions in the mysql.slave_relay_log_info table.

  • Update the GTID in the mysql.gtid_executed table (when GTIDs are enabled and the binary log is disabled on the server).

In all other cases, including DDL statements that are not fully atomic, and exempted storage engines that do not support atomic DDL, the mysql.slave_relay_log_info table might be missing updates associated with replicated data if the server halts unexpectedly. Restoring updates in this case is a manual process. For details on atomic DDL support in MySQL 8.0, and the resulting behavior for the replication of certain statements, see Section 13.1.1, “Atomic Data Definition Statement Support”.

Exactly how a replication slave recovers from an unexpected halt is influenced by the chosen method of replication, whether the slave is single-threaded or multithreaded, the setting of variables such as relay_log_recovery, and whether features such as MASTER_AUTO_POSITION are being used.

The following table shows the impact of these different factors on how a single-threaded slave recovers from an unexpected halt.

Table 17.3 Factors Influencing Single-threaded Replication Slave Recovery

GTID

MASTER_AUTO_POSITION

relay_log_recovery

relay_log_info_repository

Crash type

Recovery guaranteed

Relay log impact

OFF

Any

1

TABLE

Server

Yes

Lost

OFF

Any

1

Any

OS

No

Lost

OFF

Any

0

TABLE

Server

Yes

Remains

OFF

Any

0

TABLE

OS

No

Remains

ON

ON

Any

Any

Any

Yes

Lost

ON

OFF

0

TABLE

Server

Yes

Remains

ON

OFF

0

Any

OS

No

Remains


As the table shows, when using a single-threaded slave the following configurations are most resilient to unexpected halts:

  • When using GTIDs and MASTER_AUTO_POSITION, set relay_log_recovery=1. With this configuration the setting of relay_log_info_repository and other variables does not impact on recovery. Note that to guarantee recovery, sync_binlog=1 (which is the default) must also be set on the slave, so that the slave's binary log is synchronized to disk at each write. Otherwise, committed transactions might not be present in the slave's binary log.

  • When using file position based replication, set relay_log_recovery=1 and relay_log_info_repository=TABLE.

    Note

    During recovery the relay log is lost.

The following table shows the impact of these different factors on how a multithreaded slave recovers from an unexpected halt.

Table 17.4 Factors Influencing Multithreaded Replication Slave Recovery

GTID

sync_relay_log

MASTER_AUTO_POSITION

relay_log_recovery

relay_log_info_repository

Crash type

Recovery guaranteed

Relay log impact

OFF

1

Any

1

TABLE

Any

Yes

Lost

OFF

>1

Any

1

TABLE

Server

Yes

Lost

OFF

>1

Any

1

Any

OS

No

Lost

OFF

1

Any

0

TABLE

Server

Yes

Remains

OFF

1

Any

0

TABLE

OS

No

Remains

ON

Any

ON

Any

Any

Any

Yes

Lost

ON

1

OFF

0

TABLE

Server

Yes

Remains

ON

1

OFF

0

Any

OS

No

Remains


As the table shows, when using a multithreaded slave the following configurations are most resilient to unexpected halts:

It is important to note the impact of sync_relay_log=1, which requires a write of to the relay log per transaction. Although this setting is the most resilient to an unexpected halt, with at most one unwritten transaction being lost, it also has the potential to greatly increase the load on storage. Without sync_relay_log=1, the effect of an unexpected halt depends on how the relay log is handled by the operating system. Also note that when relay_log_recovery=0, the next time the slave is started after an unexpected halt the relay log is processed as part of recovery. After this process completes, the relay log is deleted.

An unexpected halt of a multithreaded replication slave using the recommended file position based replication configuration above may result in a relay log with transaction inconsistencies (gaps in the sequence of transactions) caused by the unexpected halt. See Section 17.4.1.34, “Replication and Transaction Inconsistencies”. If the relay log recovery process encounters such transaction inconsistencies they are filled and the recovery process continues automatically.

When you are using multi-source replication and relay_log_recovery=1, after restarting due to an unexpected halt all replication channels go through the relay log recovery process. Any inconsistencies found in the relay log due to an unexpected halt of a multithreaded slave are filled.


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