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MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual  /  InnoDB Cluster  /  Working with InnoDB cluster

20.4 Working with InnoDB cluster

This section explains how to work with clusters, and how to handle common administration tasks.

Checking the InnoDB Cluster Status

Use the Cluster object's status() method to check a cluster's status:

mysql-js> cluster.status()

This retrieves the current InnoDB cluster status which the server instance you are connected to is aware of and outputs a status report. It is important to understand that the instance's state in the cluster influences the information in the status report. A member which has left the cluster would provide a different view of the cluster compared to a instance which belongs to the cluster.

The instance status is one of the following:

  • ONLINE: The instance is online and participating in the cluster.

  • OFFLINE: The instance may have lost connection to the other instances.

  • RECOVERING: The instance is attempting to synchronize with the cluster by pulling in transactions it needs before it can become an ONLINE member.

  • UNREACHABLE: The instance has lost communication with the cluster.

  • ERROR: The instance has encountered an error during the recovery phase or while applying a transaction.

  • (MISSING): The state of an instance which is part of the configured cluster, but is currently unavailable.


    The MISSING state is specific to InnoDB cluster, it is not a state generated by Group Replication. MySQL Shell uses this state to indicate instances that are registered in the metadata, but cannot be found in the live cluster view.


Once an instance enters ERROR state, the super_read_only option is set to ON. To leave the ERROR state you must manually configure the instance with super_read_only=OFF.

The mode indicates either R/W (read and writable) or R/O (read only). In single-primary mode, only the instance marked "R/W" can execute transactions that update the database, so it is the PRIMARY. If that instance becomes unreachable for any reason (like an unexpected halt), one of the remaining "R/O" instances automatically takes over its place and becomes the new "R/W" PRIMARY. In multi-primary mode, multiple instances are marked as "R/W" and there is no elected PRIMARY.

To check the status of the InnoDB cluster at a later time, you can get a reference to the InnoDB cluster object by connecting to any of its instances. However, if you want to make changes to the InnoDB cluster, you must connect to a "R/W" instance. For information about how the InnoDB cluster is running, use the status() method:

mysql-js> var cluster = dba.getCluster()
mysql-js> cluster.status()
    "clusterName": "test",
    "defaultReplicaSet": {
        "status": "Cluster tolerant to up to ONE failure.",
        "topology": {
            "localhost:3310": {
                "address": "localhost:3310",
                "status": "ONLINE",
                "role": "HA",
                "mode": "R/W",
                "leaves": {
                    "localhost:3320": {
                        "address": "localhost:3320",
                        "status": "ONLINE",
                        "role": "HA",
                        "mode": "R/O",
                        "leaves": {}
                    "localhost:3330": {
                        "address": "localhost:3330",
                        "status": "ONLINE",
                        "role": "HA",
                        "mode": "R/O",
                        "leaves": {}

As the above output demonstrates, status information includes the InnoDB cluster name, topology, PRIMARY, and more.

Describing the Structure of the InnoDB Cluster

To get information about the structure of the InnoDB cluster itself, use the cluster.describe() function:

mysql-js> cluster.describe();
    "clusterName": "test",
    "adminType": "local",
    "defaultReplicaSet": {
        "name": "default",
        "instances": [
                "name": "localhost:3310",
                "host": "localhost:3310",
                "role": "HA"
                "name": "localhost:3320",
                "host": "localhost:3320",
                "role": "HA"
                "name": "localhost:3330",
                "host": "localhost:3330",
                "role": "HA"

The output from this function shows the structure of the InnoDB cluster including all of its configuration information, and so on.

Managing Sandbox Instances

Once a sandbox instance is running, it is possible to change its status at any time using the following:

  • Stop: dba.stopSandboxInstance()

  • Start: dba.startSandboxInstance()

  • Kill: dba.killSandboxInstance()

    Kills the MySQL Server instance process on the local host, Useful to help simulate an unexpected halt while testing failover.

  • Delete: dba.deleteSandboxInstance()

    Completely removes the sandbox instance from your file system.

Removing Instances from the InnoDB Cluster

You can remove an instance from a cluster at any time should you wish to do so. This can be done with the removeInstance() method, as in the following example:

mysql-js> cluster.removeInstance("")

Rejoining a Cluster

If an instance leaves the cluster, for example because it lost connection and did not or could not automatically rejoin the cluster, it may be necessary to rejoin it to the cluster at a later stage. Because the Group Replication configuration is not persisted in the instance's local configuration file, restarting an instance causes it to leave the Replication Group, so it must rejoin to add the instance back.

The command to rejoin an instance to a cluster is cluster.rejoinInstance().

In the case where an instance has been configured using dba.configureLocalInstance(), its Group Replication information is persisted to the configuration file, and will rejoin the cluster automatically. More information on this can be found in the section Configuring the Instance.

MySQL Router and Metadata Servers

When MySQL Router is bootstrapped it records the bootstrap server addresses in its configuration. These servers contain metadata used my MySQL Router in order to route correctly. If any additional instances are added to the cluster after bootstrapping the MySQL Router, they are automatically detected and used for connection routing. If however, all of the original metadata servers go offline for some reason, MySQL Router would no longer be able to route correctly. Consider the following line in a mysqlrouter.conf file:


There are three original metadata servers specified here. Now if two additional servers (call them D and E) were added, you would have a five instance cluster, and MySQL Router routes to these additional instances as required. If the original metadata instances, A, B and C, stopped unexpectedly and left the cluster, you would be left with only instances D and E running. At this point, instances D and E are still alive and form a quorum. So it should be possible to route calls to them. However, as all original metadata servers are down (instances A, B and C), MySQL Router shuts off all routing. In such a situation you can configure MySQL Router manually.

  • Modify the MySQL Router instance's configuration file to specify the correct metadata servers in the bootstrap_server_addresses option.

  • Restart the MySQL Router instance, the updated metadata server is detetced and used.

Dissolving InnoDB Cluster

If you want to remove all information associated with a cluster, you can use the cluster.dissolve() method. This removes all metadata and configuration associated with the cluster. Once you have dissolved the cluster you need to create it again from scratch, using dba.createCluster().


After calling cluster.dissolve(), the cluster object is no longer valid.

Using MySQL Shell to Execute a Script

You can automate cluster configuration with scripts. For example:

shell> mysqlsh -f setup-innodb-cluster.js

Any command line options specified after the script file name are passed to the script and not to MySQL Shell. You can access those options using the os.argv array in JavaScript, or the sys.argv array in Python. In both cases, the first option picked up in the array is the script name.

The contents for an example script file is shown here:

  print('MySQL InnoDB cluster sandbox set up\n');
  print('Setting up a MySQL InnoDB cluster with 3 MySQL Server sandbox instances.\n');
  print('The instances will be installed in ~/mysql-sandboxes.\n');
  print('They will run on ports 3310, 3320 and 3330.\n\n');

  var dbPass = shell.prompt('Please enter a password for the MySQL root account: ', {type:"password"});

  try {
     print('\nDeploying the sandbox instances.');
     dba.deploySandboxInstance(3310, {password: dbPass});
     dba.deploySandboxInstance(3320, {password: dbPass});
     dba.deploySandboxInstance(3330, {password: dbPass});
     print('.\nSandbox instances deployed successfully.\n\n');

     print('Setting up InnoDB cluster...\n');
     shell.connect('root@localhost:3310', dbPass);

     var cluster = dba.createCluster("devCluster");

     print('Adding instances to the cluster.');
     cluster.addInstance({user: "root", host: "localhost", port: 3320, password: dbPass});
     cluster.addInstance({user: "root", host: "localhost", port: 3330, password: dbPass});
     print('.\nInstances successfully added to the cluster.');

     print('\nInnoDB cluster deployed successfully.\n');
  } catch(e) {
     print('\nThe InnoDB cluster could not be created.\n\nError: ' +
     + e.message + '\n');

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