Take the following limitations into account when running online DDL operations:
ALTER TABLEoperation that copies the table can cause an error if the operation uses all of the available disk space on the file system where the data directory (
datadir) resides. To avoid this problem, ensure that there is enough disk space to accommodate online
ALTER TABLEoperations that copy the table. During these operations, MySQL writes temporary sort files to the MySQL temporary directory (
%TEMP%on Windows, or the directory specified by the
--tmpdirconfiguration variable). Each temporary file is large enough to hold one column in the new table or index, and each one is removed as soon as it is merged into the final table or index. Such operations may require temporary space equal to the amount of data in the table plus indexes.
As of MySQL 5.7.11, you can define a separate temporary directory for
ALTER TABLEoperations using the
innodb_tmpdirconfiguration option. The
innodb_tmpdiroption was introduced to help avoid temporary directory overflows that could occur as a result of large temporary sort files created during online
ALTER TABLEoperations that rebuild the table.
The table is copied, rather than using Fast Index Creation when you create an index on a
TEMPORARY TABLE. This has been reported as MySQL Bug #39833.
InnoDB handles error cases when users attempt to drop indexes needed for foreign keys. See Section B.3, “Server Error Codes and Messages” for information related to error
LOCK=NONEis not allowed if there are
ON...SET NULLconstraints on the table.
During each online DDL
ALTER TABLEstatement, regardless of the
LOCKclause, there are brief periods at the beginning and end requiring an exclusive lock on the table (the same kind of lock specified by the
LOCK=EXCLUSIVEclause). Thus, an online DDL operation might wait before starting if there is a long-running transaction performing inserts, updates, deletes, or
SELECT ... FOR UPDATEon that table; and an online DDL operation might wait before finishing if a similar long-running transaction was started while the
ALTER TABLEwas in progress.
When running an online
ALTER TABLEoperation, the thread that runs the
ALTER TABLEoperation will apply an “online log” of DML operations that were run concurrently on the same table from other connection threads. When the DML operations are applied, it is possible to encounter a duplicate key entry error (ERROR 1062 (23000): Duplicate entry), even if the duplicate entry is only temporary and would be reverted by a later entry in the “online log”. This is similar to the idea of a foreign key constraint check in
InnoDBin which constraints must hold during a transaction.
OPTIMIZE TABLEfor an
InnoDBtable is mapped to an
ALTER TABLEoperation to rebuild the table and update index statistics and free unused space in the clustered index. Prior to 5.7.4, there is no online DDL support for this operation. Secondary indexes are not created as efficiently because keys are inserted in the order they appeared in the primary key. As of 5.7.4,
OPTIMIZE TABLEis supported with the addition of online DDL support for rebuilding regular and partitioned
InnoDBtables. For additional information, see Section 15.11.1, “Overview of Online DDL”.
InnoDBtables created before MySQL 5.6 do not support
ALTER TABLE ... ALGORITHM=INPLACEfor tables that include temporal columns (
TIMESTAMP) and have not been rebuilt using
ALTER TABLE ... ALGORITHM=COPY. In this case, an
ALTER TABLE ... ALGORITHM=INPLACEoperation returns the following error:
ERROR 1846 (0A000): ALGORITHM=INPLACE is not supported. Reason: Cannot change column type INPLACE. Try ALGORITHM=COPY.
These limitations are generally applicable to online DDL operations on large tables where table copying is involved:
There is no mechanism to pause an online DDL operation or to throttle I/O or CPU usage for an online DDL operation.
Progress monitoring capability for online DDL operations is limited until MySQL 5.7.6, which introduces Performance Schema stage events for monitoring
ALTER TABLEprogress. See Section 15.14.1, “Monitoring ALTER TABLE Progress for InnoDB Tables Using Performance Schema”.
Rollback of an online DDL operation can be expensive should the operation fail.
Long running online DDL operations can cause replication lag. An online DDL operation must finish running on the master before it is run on the slave. Also, DML that was processed concurrently on the master is only processed on the slave after the DDL operation on the slave is completed (Bug #73196).
For additional information related to running online DDL operations on large tables, see Section 15.11.2, “Performance and Concurrency Considerations for Online DDL”.