MySQL 5.6 Release Notes
The following table lists each SQL function and operator and provides a short description of each one. For a table listing userdefined functions, see Section 12.2, “UserDefined Function Reference”.
Table 12.1 SQL Functions and Operators
Name  Description  Introduced  Deprecated 

& 
Bitwise AND  
> 
Greater than operator  
>> 
Right shift  
>= 
Greater than or equal operator  
< 
Less than operator  
<> , != 
Not equal operator  
<< 
Left shift  
<= 
Less than or equal operator  
<=> 
NULLsafe equal to operator  
% , MOD 
Modulo operator  
* 
Multiplication operator  
+ 
Addition operator  
 
Minus operator  
 
Change the sign of the argument  
/ 
Division operator  
:= 
Assign a value  
= 
Assign a value (as part of a
SET
statement, or as part of the SET clause in an
UPDATE statement)


= 
Equal operator  
^ 
Bitwise XOR  
ABS() 
Return the absolute value  
ACOS() 
Return the arc cosine  
ADDDATE() 
Add time values (intervals) to a date value  
ADDTIME() 
Add time  
AES_DECRYPT() 
Decrypt using AES  
AES_ENCRYPT() 
Encrypt using AES  
AND , && 
Logical AND  
Area() 
Return Polygon or MultiPolygon area  
AsBinary() , AsWKB() 
Convert from internal geometry format to WKB  
ASCII() 
Return numeric value of leftmost character  
ASIN() 
Return the arc sine  
AsText() , AsWKT() 
Convert from internal geometry format to WKT  
ATAN() 
Return the arc tangent  
ATAN2() , ATAN() 
Return the arc tangent of the two arguments  
AVG() 
Return the average value of the argument  
BENCHMARK() 
Repeatedly execute an expression  
BETWEEN ... AND ... 
Whether a value is within a range of values  
BIN() 
Return a string containing binary representation of a number  
BINARY 
Cast a string to a binary string  
BIT_AND() 
Return bitwise AND  
BIT_COUNT() 
Return the number of bits that are set  
BIT_LENGTH() 
Return length of argument in bits  
BIT_OR() 
Return bitwise OR  
BIT_XOR() 
Return bitwise XOR  
Buffer() 
Return geometry of points within given distance from geometry  
CASE 
Case operator  
CAST() 
Cast a value as a certain type  
CEIL() 
Return the smallest integer value not less than the argument  
CEILING() 
Return the smallest integer value not less than the argument  
Centroid() 
Return centroid as a point  
CHAR() 
Return the character for each integer passed  
CHAR_LENGTH() 
Return number of characters in argument  
CHARACTER_LENGTH() 
Synonym for CHAR_LENGTH()  
CHARSET() 
Return the character set of the argument  
COALESCE() 
Return the first nonNULL argument  
COERCIBILITY() 
Return the collation coercibility value of the string argument  
COLLATION() 
Return the collation of the string argument  
COMPRESS() 
Return result as a binary string  
CONCAT() 
Return concatenated string  
CONCAT_WS() 
Return concatenate with separator  
CONNECTION_ID() 
Return the connection ID (thread ID) for the connection  
Contains() 
Whether MBR of one geometry contains MBR of another  
CONV() 
Convert numbers between different number bases  
CONVERT() 
Cast a value as a certain type  
CONVERT_TZ() 
Convert from one time zone to another  
COS() 
Return the cosine  
COT() 
Return the cotangent  
COUNT() 
Return a count of the number of rows returned  
COUNT(DISTINCT) 
Return the count of a number of different values  
CRC32() 
Compute a cyclic redundancy check value  
Crosses() 
Whether one geometry crosses another  
CURDATE() 
Return the current date  
CURRENT_DATE() , CURRENT_DATE 
Synonyms for CURDATE()  
CURRENT_TIME() , CURRENT_TIME 
Synonyms for CURTIME()  
CURRENT_TIMESTAMP() , CURRENT_TIMESTAMP 
Synonyms for NOW()  
CURRENT_USER() , CURRENT_USER 
The authenticated user name and host name  
CURTIME() 
Return the current time  
DATABASE() 
Return the default (current) database name  
DATE() 
Extract the date part of a date or datetime expression  
DATE_ADD() 
Add time values (intervals) to a date value  
DATE_FORMAT() 
Format date as specified  
DATE_SUB() 
Subtract a time value (interval) from a date  
DATEDIFF() 
Subtract two dates  
DAY() 
Synonym for DAYOFMONTH()  
DAYNAME() 
Return the name of the weekday  
DAYOFMONTH() 
Return the day of the month (031)  
DAYOFWEEK() 
Return the weekday index of the argument  
DAYOFYEAR() 
Return the day of the year (1366)  
DECODE() 
Decode a string encrypted using ENCODE()  
DEFAULT() 
Return the default value for a table column  
DEGREES() 
Convert radians to degrees  
DES_DECRYPT() 
Decrypt a string  
DES_ENCRYPT() 
Encrypt a string  
Dimension() 
Dimension of geometry  
Disjoint() 
Whether MBRs of two geometries are disjoint  
DIV 
Integer division  
ELT() 
Return string at index number  
ENCODE() 
Encode a string  
ENCRYPT() 
Encrypt a string  
EndPoint() 
End Point of LineString  
Envelope() 
Return MBR of geometry  
Equals() 
Whether MBRs of two geometries are equal  
EXP() 
Raise to the power of  
EXPORT_SET() 
Return a string such that for every bit set in the value bits, you get an on string and for every unset bit, you get an off string  
ExteriorRing() 
Return exterior ring of Polygon  
EXTRACT() 
Extract part of a date  
ExtractValue() 
Extract a value from an XML string using XPath notation  
FIELD() 
Index (position) of first argument in subsequent arguments  
FIND_IN_SET() 
Index (position) of first argument within second argument  
FLOOR() 
Return the largest integer value not greater than the argument  
FORMAT() 
Return a number formatted to specified number of decimal places  
FOUND_ROWS() 
For a SELECT with a LIMIT clause, the number of rows that would be returned were there no LIMIT clause  
FROM_BASE64() 
Decode base64 encoded string and return result  
FROM_DAYS() 
Convert a day number to a date  
FROM_UNIXTIME() 
Format Unix timestamp as a date  
GeomCollFromText() , GeometryCollectionFromText() 
Return geometry collection from WKT  
GeomCollFromWKB() , GeometryCollectionFromWKB() 
Return geometry collection from WKB  
GeometryCollection() 
Construct geometry collection from geometries  
GeometryN() 
Return Nth geometry from geometry collection  
GeometryType() 
Return name of geometry type  
GeomFromText() , GeometryFromText() 
Return geometry from WKT  
GeomFromWKB() , GeometryFromWKB() 
Return geometry from WKB  
GET_FORMAT() 
Return a date format string  
GET_LOCK() 
Get a named lock  
GLength() 
Return length of LineString  
GREATEST() 
Return the largest argument  
GROUP_CONCAT() 
Return a concatenated string  
GTID_SUBSET() 
Return true if all GTIDs in subset are also in set; otherwise false.  
GTID_SUBTRACT() 
Return all GTIDs in set that are not in subset.  
HEX() 
Hexadecimal representation of decimal or string value  
HOUR() 
Extract the hour  
IF() 
If/else construct  
IFNULL() 
Null if/else construct  
IN() 
Whether a value is within a set of values  
INET_ATON() 
Return the numeric value of an IP address  
INET_NTOA() 
Return the IP address from a numeric value  
INET6_ATON() 
Return the numeric value of an IPv6 address  
INET6_NTOA() 
Return the IPv6 address from a numeric value  
INSERT() 
Insert substring at specified position up to specified number of characters  
INSTR() 
Return the index of the first occurrence of substring  
InteriorRingN() 
Return Nth interior ring of Polygon  
Intersects() 
Whether MBRs of two geometries intersect  
INTERVAL() 
Return the index of the argument that is less than the first argument  
IS 
Test a value against a boolean  
IS_FREE_LOCK() 
Whether the named lock is free  
IS_IPV4() 
Whether argument is an IPv4 address  
IS_IPV4_COMPAT() 
Whether argument is an IPv4compatible address  
IS_IPV4_MAPPED() 
Whether argument is an IPv4mapped address  
IS_IPV6() 
Whether argument is an IPv6 address  
IS NOT 
Test a value against a boolean  
IS NOT NULL 
NOT NULL value test  
IS NULL 
NULL value test  
IS_USED_LOCK() 
Whether the named lock is in use; return connection identifier if true  
IsClosed() 
Whether a geometry is closed and simple  
IsEmpty() 
Whether a geometry is empty  
ISNULL() 
Test whether the argument is NULL  
IsSimple() 
Whether a geometry is simple  
LAST_DAY 
Return the last day of the month for the argument  
LAST_INSERT_ID() 
Value of the AUTOINCREMENT column for the last INSERT  
LCASE() 
Synonym for LOWER()  
LEAST() 
Return the smallest argument  
LEFT() 
Return the leftmost number of characters as specified  
LENGTH() 
Return the length of a string in bytes  
LIKE 
Simple pattern matching  
LineFromText() , LineStringFromText() 
Construct LineString from WKT  
LineFromWKB() , LineStringFromWKB() 
Construct LineString from WKB  
LineString() 
Construct LineString from Point values  
LN() 
Return the natural logarithm of the argument  
LOAD_FILE() 
Load the named file  
LOCALTIME() , LOCALTIME 
Synonym for NOW()  
LOCALTIMESTAMP , LOCALTIMESTAMP() 
Synonym for NOW()  
LOCATE() 
Return the position of the first occurrence of substring  
LOG() 
Return the natural logarithm of the first argument  
LOG10() 
Return the base10 logarithm of the argument  
LOG2() 
Return the base2 logarithm of the argument  
LOWER() 
Return the argument in lowercase  
LPAD() 
Return the string argument, leftpadded with the specified string  
LTRIM() 
Remove leading spaces  
MAKE_SET() 
Return a set of commaseparated strings that have the corresponding bit in bits set  
MAKEDATE() 
Create a date from the year and day of year  
MAKETIME() 
Create time from hour, minute, second  
MASTER_POS_WAIT() 
Block until the replica has read and applied all updates up to the specified position  
MATCH 
Perform fulltext search  
MAX() 
Return the maximum value  
MBRContains() 
Whether MBR of one geometry contains MBR of another  
MBRDisjoint() 
Whether MBRs of two geometries are disjoint  
MBREqual() 
Whether MBRs of two geometries are equal  
MBRIntersects() 
Whether MBRs of two geometries intersect  
MBROverlaps() 
Whether MBRs of two geometries overlap  
MBRTouches() 
Whether MBRs of two geometries touch  
MBRWithin() 
Whether MBR of one geometry is within MBR of another  
MD5() 
Calculate MD5 checksum  
MICROSECOND() 
Return the microseconds from argument  
MID() 
Return a substring starting from the specified position  
MIN() 
Return the minimum value  
MINUTE() 
Return the minute from the argument  
MLineFromText() , MultiLineStringFromText() 
Construct MultiLineString from WKT  
MLineFromWKB() , MultiLineStringFromWKB() 
Construct MultiLineString from WKB  
MOD() 
Return the remainder  
MONTH() 
Return the month from the date passed  
MONTHNAME() 
Return the name of the month  
MPointFromText() , MultiPointFromText() 
Construct MultiPoint from WKT  
MPointFromWKB() , MultiPointFromWKB() 
Construct MultiPoint from WKB  
MPolyFromText() , MultiPolygonFromText() 
Construct MultiPolygon from WKT  
MPolyFromWKB() , MultiPolygonFromWKB() 
Construct MultiPolygon from WKB  
MultiLineString() 
Contruct MultiLineString from LineString values  
MultiPoint() 
Construct MultiPoint from Point values  
MultiPolygon() 
Construct MultiPolygon from Polygon values  
NAME_CONST() 
Cause the column to have the given name  
NOT , ! 
Negates value  
NOT BETWEEN ... AND ... 
Whether a value is not within a range of values  
NOT IN() 
Whether a value is not within a set of values  
NOT LIKE 
Negation of simple pattern matching  
NOT REGEXP 
Negation of REGEXP  
NOW() 
Return the current date and time  
NULLIF() 
Return NULL if expr1 = expr2  
NumGeometries() 
Return number of geometries in geometry collection  
NumInteriorRings() 
Return number of interior rings in Polygon  
NumPoints() 
Return number of points in LineString  
OCT() 
Return a string containing octal representation of a number  
OCTET_LENGTH() 
Synonym for LENGTH()  
OLD_PASSWORD() 
Return the value of the pre4.1 implementation of PASSWORD  Yes  
OR ,  
Logical OR  
ORD() 
Return character code for leftmost character of the argument  
Overlaps() 
Whether MBRs of two geometries overlap  
PASSWORD() 
Calculate and return a password string  
PERIOD_ADD() 
Add a period to a yearmonth  
PERIOD_DIFF() 
Return the number of months between periods  
PI() 
Return the value of pi  
Point() 
Construct Point from coordinates  
PointFromText() 
Construct Point from WKT  
PointFromWKB() 
Construct Point from WKB  
PointN() 
Return Nth point from LineString  
PolyFromText() , PolygonFromText() 
Construct Polygon from WKT  
PolyFromWKB() , PolygonFromWKB() 
Construct Polygon from WKB  
Polygon() 
Construct Polygon from LineString arguments  
POSITION() 
Synonym for LOCATE()  
POW() 
Return the argument raised to the specified power  
POWER() 
Return the argument raised to the specified power  
PROCEDURE ANALYSE() 
Analyze the results of a query  
QUARTER() 
Return the quarter from a date argument  
QUOTE() 
Escape the argument for use in an SQL statement  
RADIANS() 
Return argument converted to radians  
RAND() 
Return a random floatingpoint value  
RANDOM_BYTES() 
Return a random byte vector  5.6.17  
REGEXP 
Whether string matches regular expression  
RELEASE_LOCK() 
Release the named lock  
REPEAT() 
Repeat a string the specified number of times  
REPLACE() 
Replace occurrences of a specified string  
REVERSE() 
Reverse the characters in a string  
RIGHT() 
Return the specified rightmost number of characters  
RLIKE 
Whether string matches regular expression  
ROUND() 
Round the argument  
ROW_COUNT() 
The number of rows updated  
RPAD() 
Append string the specified number of times  
RTRIM() 
Remove trailing spaces  
SCHEMA() 
Synonym for DATABASE()  
SEC_TO_TIME() 
Converts seconds to 'hh:mm:ss' format  
SECOND() 
Return the second (059)  
SESSION_USER() 
Synonym for USER()  
SHA1() , SHA() 
Calculate an SHA1 160bit checksum  
SHA2() 
Calculate an SHA2 checksum  
SIGN() 
Return the sign of the argument  
SIN() 
Return the sine of the argument  
SLEEP() 
Sleep for a number of seconds  
SOUNDEX() 
Return a soundex string  
SOUNDS LIKE 
Compare sounds  
SPACE() 
Return a string of the specified number of spaces  
SQL_THREAD_WAIT_AFTER_GTIDS() 
Obsolete. Use WAIT_FOR_EXECUTED_GTID_SET() .

Yes  
SQRT() 
Return the square root of the argument  
SRID() 
Return spatial reference system ID for geometry  
ST_Area() 
Return Polygon or MultiPolygon area  
ST_AsBinary() , ST_AsWKB() 
Convert from internal geometry format to WKB  
ST_AsText() , ST_AsWKT() 
Convert from internal geometry format to WKT  
ST_Buffer() 
Return geometry of points within given distance from geometry  
ST_Centroid() 
Return centroid as a point  
ST_Contains() 
Whether one geometry contains another  
ST_Crosses() 
Whether one geometry crosses another  
ST_Difference() 
Return point set difference of two geometries  
ST_Dimension() 
Dimension of geometry  
ST_Disjoint() 
Whether one geometry is disjoint from another  
ST_Distance() 
The distance of one geometry from another  
ST_EndPoint() 
End Point of LineString  
ST_Envelope() 
Return MBR of geometry  
ST_Equals() 
Whether one geometry is equal to another  
ST_ExteriorRing() 
Return exterior ring of Polygon  
ST_GeomCollFromText() , ST_GeometryCollectionFromText() , ST_GeomCollFromTxt() 
Return geometry collection from WKT  
ST_GeomCollFromWKB() , ST_GeometryCollectionFromWKB() 
Return geometry collection from WKB  
ST_GeometryN() 
Return Nth geometry from geometry collection  
ST_GeometryType() 
Return name of geometry type  
ST_GeomFromText() , ST_GeometryFromText() 
Return geometry from WKT  
ST_GeomFromWKB() , ST_GeometryFromWKB() 
Return geometry from WKB  
ST_InteriorRingN() 
Return Nth interior ring of Polygon  
ST_Intersection() 
Return point set intersection of two geometries  
ST_Intersects() 
Whether one geometry intersects another  
ST_IsClosed() 
Whether a geometry is closed and simple  
ST_IsEmpty() 
Whether a geometry is empty  
ST_IsSimple() 
Whether a geometry is simple  
ST_LineFromText() , ST_LineStringFromText() 
Construct LineString from WKT  
ST_LineFromWKB() , ST_LineStringFromWKB() 
Construct LineString from WKB  
ST_NumGeometries() 
Return number of geometries in geometry collection  
ST_NumInteriorRing() , ST_NumInteriorRings() 
Return number of interior rings in Polygon  
ST_NumPoints() 
Return number of points in LineString  
ST_Overlaps() 
Whether one geometry overlaps another  
ST_PointFromText() 
Construct Point from WKT  
ST_PointFromWKB() 
Construct Point from WKB  
ST_PointN() 
Return Nth point from LineString  
ST_PolyFromText() , ST_PolygonFromText() 
Construct Polygon from WKT  
ST_PolyFromWKB() , ST_PolygonFromWKB() 
Construct Polygon from WKB  
ST_SRID() 
Return spatial reference system ID for geometry  
ST_StartPoint() 
Start Point of LineString  
ST_SymDifference() 
Return point set symmetric difference of two geometries  
ST_Touches() 
Whether one geometry touches another  
ST_Union() 
Return point set union of two geometries  
ST_Within() 
Whether one geometry is within another  
ST_X() 
Return X coordinate of Point  
ST_Y() 
Return Y coordinate of Point  
StartPoint() 
Start Point of LineString  
STD() 
Return the population standard deviation  
STDDEV() 
Return the population standard deviation  
STDDEV_POP() 
Return the population standard deviation  
STDDEV_SAMP() 
Return the sample standard deviation  
STR_TO_DATE() 
Convert a string to a date  
STRCMP() 
Compare two strings  
SUBDATE() 
Synonym for DATE_SUB() when invoked with three arguments  
SUBSTR() 
Return the substring as specified  
SUBSTRING() 
Return the substring as specified  
SUBSTRING_INDEX() 
Return a substring from a string before the specified number of occurrences of the delimiter  
SUBTIME() 
Subtract times  
SUM() 
Return the sum  
SYSDATE() 
Return the time at which the function executes  
SYSTEM_USER() 
Synonym for USER()  
TAN() 
Return the tangent of the argument  
TIME() 
Extract the time portion of the expression passed  
TIME_FORMAT() 
Format as time  
TIME_TO_SEC() 
Return the argument converted to seconds  
TIMEDIFF() 
Subtract time  
TIMESTAMP() 
With a single argument, this function returns the date or datetime expression; with two arguments, the sum of the arguments  
TIMESTAMPADD() 
Add an interval to a datetime expression  
TIMESTAMPDIFF() 
Subtract an interval from a datetime expression  
TO_BASE64() 
Return the argument converted to a base64 string  
TO_DAYS() 
Return the date argument converted to days  
TO_SECONDS() 
Return the date or datetime argument converted to seconds since Year 0  
Touches() 
Whether one geometry touches another  
TRIM() 
Remove leading and trailing spaces  
TRUNCATE() 
Truncate to specified number of decimal places  
UCASE() 
Synonym for UPPER()  
UNCOMPRESS() 
Uncompress a string compressed  
UNCOMPRESSED_LENGTH() 
Return the length of a string before compression  
UNHEX() 
Return a string containing hex representation of a number  
UNIX_TIMESTAMP() 
Return a Unix timestamp  
UpdateXML() 
Return replaced XML fragment  
UPPER() 
Convert to uppercase  
USER() 
The user name and host name provided by the client  
UTC_DATE() 
Return the current UTC date  
UTC_TIME() 
Return the current UTC time  
UTC_TIMESTAMP() 
Return the current UTC date and time  
UUID() 
Return a Universal Unique Identifier (UUID)  
UUID_SHORT() 
Return an integervalued universal identifier  
VALIDATE_PASSWORD_STRENGTH() 
Determine strength of password  
VALUES() 
Define the values to be used during an INSERT  
VAR_POP() 
Return the population standard variance  
VAR_SAMP() 
Return the sample variance  
VARIANCE() 
Return the population standard variance  
VERSION() 
Return a string that indicates the MySQL server version  
WAIT_UNTIL_SQL_THREAD_AFTER_GTIDS() 
Use WAIT_FOR_EXECUTED_GTID_SET() .


WEEK() 
Return the week number  
WEEKDAY() 
Return the weekday index  
WEEKOFYEAR() 
Return the calendar week of the date (153)  
WEIGHT_STRING() 
Return the weight string for a string  
Within() 
Whether MBR of one geometry is within MBR of another  
X() 
Return X coordinate of Point  
XOR 
Logical XOR  
Y() 
Return Y coordinate of Point  
YEAR() 
Return the year  
YEARWEEK() 
Return the year and week  
 
Bitwise OR  
~ 
Bitwise inversion 