The “safeness” of a statement in MySQL Replication, refers to whether the statement and its effects can be replicated correctly using statement-based format. If this is true of the statement, we refer to the statement as safe; otherwise, we refer to it as unsafe.
In general, a statement is safe if it deterministic, and unsafe if it is not. However, certain nondeterministic functions are not considered unsafe (see Nondeterministic functions not considered unsafe, later in this section). In addition, statements using results from floating-point math functions—which are hardware-dependent—are always considered unsafe (see Section 4.1.12, “Replication and Floating-Point Values”).
Handling of safe and unsafe statements.
A statement is treated differently depending on whether the
statement is considered safe, and with respect to the binary
logging format (that is, the current value of
When using row-based logging, no distinction is made in the treatment of safe and unsafe statements.
When using mixed-format logging, statements flagged as unsafe are logged using the row-based format; statements regarded as safe are logged using the statement-based format.
When using statement-based logging, statements flagged as being unsafe generate a warning to this effect. Safe statements are logged normally.
Each statement flagged as unsafe generates a warning. Formerly,
if a large number of such statements were executed on the
source, this could lead to excessively large error log files. To
prevent this, MySQL provides a warning suppression mechanism
(introduced in MySQL 5.6.7), which behaves as follows: Whenever
the 50 most recent
warnings have been generated more than 50 times in any 50-second
period, warning suppression is enabled. When activated, this
causes such warnings not to be written to the error log;
instead, for each 50 warnings of this type, a note
last warning was repeated is written
to the error log. This continues as long as the 50 most recent
such warnings were issued in 50 seconds or less; once the rate
has decreased below this threshold, the warnings are once again
logged normally. Warning suppression has no effect on how the
safety of statements for statement-based logging is determined,
nor on how warnings are sent to the client. MySQL clients still
receive one warning for each such statement.
N times in
For more information, see Section 2.2, “Replication Formats”.
Statements containing system functions that may return a different value on replica. These functions include
Nondeterministic functions not considered unsafe. Although these functions are not deterministic, they are treated as safe for purposes of logging and replication:
For more information, see Section 4.1.15, “Replication and System Functions”.
References to system variables. Most system variables are not replicated correctly using the statement-based format. See Section 4.1.35, “Replication and Variables”. For exceptions, see Mixed Binary Logging Format.
UDFs. Since we have no control over what a UDF does, we must assume that it is executing unsafe statements.
Trigger or stored program updates a table having an AUTO_INCREMENT column. This is unsafe because the order in which the rows are updated may differ on the source and the replica.
In addition, an
INSERTinto a table that has a composite primary key containing an
AUTO_INCREMENTcolumn that is not the first column of this composite key is unsafe.
For more information, see Section 4.1.1, “Replication and AUTO_INCREMENT”.
INSERT DELAYED statement. This statement is considered unsafe because the insertion of the rows may interleave with concurrently executing statements.
INSERT ... ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE statements on tables with multiple primary or unique keys. When executed against a table that contains more than one primary or unique key, this statement is considered unsafe, being sensitive to the order in which the storage engine checks the keys, which is not deterministic, and on which the choice of rows updated by the MySQL Server depends.
INSERT ... ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATEstatement against a table having more than one unique or primary key is marked as unsafe for statement-based replication beginning with MySQL 5.6.6. (Bug #11765650, Bug #58637)
Updates using LIMIT. The order in which rows are retrieved is not specified, and is therefore considered unsafe. See Section 4.1.17, “Replication and LIMIT”.
Accesses or references log tables. The contents of the system log table may differ between source and replica.
Nontransactional operations after transactional operations. Within a transaction, allowing any nontransactional reads or writes to execute after any transactional reads or writes is considered unsafe.
For more information, see Section 4.1.32, “Replication and Transactions”.
Accesses or references self-logging tables. All reads and writes to self-logging tables are considered unsafe. Within a transaction, any statement following a read or write to self-logging tables is also considered unsafe.
LOAD DATA statements.
LOAD DATAis treated as unsafe and when
binlog_format=mixedthe statement is logged in row-based format. When
LOAD DATAdoes not generate a warning, unlike other unsafe statements.
For additional information, see Section 4.1, “Replication Features and Issues”.