MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5  /  ...  /  NDB Cluster Auto-Installer Requirements

4.2.1 NDB Cluster Auto-Installer Requirements

This section provides information on supported operating platforms and software, required software, and other prerequisites for running the NDB Cluster Auto-Installer.

Supported platforms.  The NDB Cluster Auto-Installer is available with NDB 8.0 distributions for recent versions of Linux, Windows, Solaris, and MacOS X. For more detailed information about platform support for NDB Cluster and the NDB Cluster Auto-Installer, see https://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/cluster.html.

Supported web browsers.  The web-based installer is supported with recent versions of Firefox and Microsoft Internet Explorer. It should also work with recent versions of Opera, Safari, and Chrome, although we have not thoroughly tested for compability with these browsers.

Required software—server.  The following software must be installed on the host where the Auto-Installer is run:

  • Python 2.6 or higher.  The Auto-Installer requires the Python interpreter and standard libraries. If these are not already installed on the system, you may be able to add them using the system's package manager. Otherwise, you can download them from http://python.org/download/.

  • Paramiko 2 or higher.  This is required to communicate with remote hosts using SSH. You can download it from http://www.lag.net/paramiko/. Paramiko may also be available from your system's package manager.

  • Pycrypto version 2.6 or higher.  This cryptography module is required by Paramiko, and can be iunstalled using pip install cryptography. If pip is not installed, and the module is not available using your system's package manage, you can download it from https://www.dlitz.net/software/pycrypto/.

All of the software in the preceding list is included in the Windows version of the configuration tool, and does not need to be installed separately.

The Paramiko and Pycrypto libraries are required only if you intend to deploy NDB Cluster nodes on remote hosts, and are not needed if all nodes are on the same host where the installer is run.

Required software—remote hosts.  The only software required for remote hosts where you wish to deploy NDB Cluster nodes is the SSH server, which is usually installed by default on Linux and Solaris systems. Several alternatives are available for Windows; for an overview of these, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_SSH_servers.

An additional requirement when using multiple hosts is that it is possible to authenticate to any of the remote hosts using SSH and the proper keys or user credentials, as discussed in the next few paragraphs:

Authentication and security.  Three basic security or authentication mechanisms for remote access are available to the Auto-Installer, which we list and describe here:

  • SSH.  A secure shell connection is used to enable the back end to perform actions on remote hosts. For this reason, an SSH server must be running on the remote host. In addition, the system user running the installer must have access to the remote server, either with a user name and password, or by using public and private keys.

    Important

    You should never use the system root account for remote access, as this is extremely insecure. In addition, mysqld cannot normally be started by system root. For these and other reasons, you should provide SSH credentials for a regular user account on the target system, and not for system root. For more information about this issue, see How to Run MySQL as a Normal User.

  • HTTPS.  Remote communication between the Web browser front end and the back end is not encrypted by default, which means that information such as the user's SSH password is transmitted in clear text that is readable to anyone. For communication from a remote client to be encrypted, the back end must have a certificate, and the front end must communicate with the back end using HTTPS rather than HTTP. Enabling HTTPS is accomplished most easily through issuing a self-signed certificate. Once the certificate is issued, you must make sure that it is used. You can do this by starting ndb_setup.py from the command line with the --use-https (-S) and --cert-file (-c) options.

    A sample certificate file cfg.pem is included and is used by default. This file is located in the mcc directory under the installation share directory; on Linux, the full path to the file is normally /usr/share/mysql/mcc/cfg.pem. On Windows systems, this is usually C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.7\share\mcc\cfg.pem. Letting the default be used means that, for testing purposes, you can simply start the installer with the -S option to use an HTTPS connection between the browser and the back end.

    The Auto-Installer saves the configuration file for a given cluster mycluster01 as mycluster01.mcc in the home directory of the user invoking the ndb_setup.py executable. This file is encrypted with a passphrase supplied by the user (using Fernet); because HTTP transmits the passphrase in the clear, it is strongly recommended that you always use an HTTPS connection to access the Auto-Installer on a remote host.

  • Certificate-based authentication.  The back end ndb_setup.py process can execute commands on the local host as well as remote hosts. This means that anyone connecting to the back end can take charge of how commands are executed. To reject unwanted connections to the back end, a certificate may be required for authentication of the client. In this case, a certificate must be issued by the user, installed in the browser, and made available to the back end for authentication purposes. You can enact this requirement (together with or in place of password or key authentication) by starting ndb_setup.py with the --ca-certs-file (-a) option.

There is no need or requirement for secure authentication when the client browser is running on the same host as the Auto-Installer back end.

See also Section 7.12, “NDB Cluster Security Issues”, which discusses security considerations to take into account when deploying NDB Cluster, as well as Security, for more general MySQL security information.


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