The constants below are defined by this extension, and will only be available when the extension has either been compiled into PHP or dynamically loaded at runtime.
SQL hint related
Example 7.297 Example demonstrating the usage of mysqlnd_ms constants
The mysqlnd replication and load balancing plugin
mysqlnd_ms) performs read/write splitting.
This directs write queries to a MySQL master server, and
read-only queries to the MySQL slave servers. The plugin has a
built-in read/write split logic. All queries which start with
SELECT are considered read-only queries,
which are then sent to a MySQL slave server that is listed in
the plugin configuration file. All other queries are directed
to the MySQL master server that is also specified in the
plugin configuration file.
User supplied SQL hints can be used to overrule automatic read/write splitting, to gain full control on the process. SQL hints are standards compliant SQL comments. The plugin will scan the beginning of a query string for an SQL comment for certain commands, which then control query redirection. Other systems involved in the query processing are unaffected by the SQL hints because other systems will ignore the SQL comments.
The plugin supports three SQL hints to direct queries to either the MySQL slave servers, the MySQL master server, or the last used MySQL server. SQL hints must be placed at the beginning of a query to be recognized by the plugin.
For better portability, it is recommended to use the string
MYSQLND_MS_LAST_USED_SWITCH instead of
their literal values.
<?php /* Use constants for maximum portability */ $master_query = "/*" . MYSQLND_MS_MASTER_SWITCH . "*/SELECT id FROM test"; /* Valid but less portable: using literal instead of constant */ $slave_query = "/*ms=slave*/SHOW TABLES"; printf("master_query = '%s'\n", $master_query); printf("slave_query = '%s'\n", $slave_query); ?>
The above examples will output:
master_query = /*ms=master*/SELECT id FROM test slave_query = /*ms=slave*/SHOW TABLES
- SQL hint used to send a query to the MySQL replication master server.
- SQL hint used to send a query to one of the MySQL replication slave servers.
- SQL hint used to send a query to the last used MySQL server. The last used MySQL server can either be a master or a slave server in a MySQL replication setup.
MYSQLND_MS_QUERY_USE_MASTERfor a given query, the built-in read/write split mechanism recommends sending the query to a MySQL replication master server.
MYSQLND_MS_QUERY_USE_SLAVEfor a given query, the built-in read/write split mechanism recommends sending the query to a MySQL replication slave server.
MYSQLND_MS_QUERY_USE_LAST_USEDfor a given query, the built-in read/write split mechanism recommends sending the query to the last used server.
quality of service filter and service level related
Use to request the service level eventual consistency from the
mysqlnd_ms_set_qos. Eventual consistency is the default quality of service when reading from an asynchronous MySQL replication slave. Data returned in this service level may or may not be stale, depending on whether the selected slaves happen to have replicated the latest changes from the MySQL replication master or not.
Use to request the service level session consistency from the
mysqlnd_ms_set_qos. Session consistency is defined as read your writes. The client is guaranteed to see his latest changes.
Use to request the service level strong consistency from the
mysqlnd_ms_set_qos. Strong consistency is used to ensure all clients see each others changes.
Used as a service level option with
mysqlnd_ms_set_qosto parameterize session consistency.
Used as a service level option with
mysqlnd_ms_set_qosto parameterize eventual consistency.
The plugins version number can be obtained using
MYSQLND_MS_VERSION is the string
representation of the numerical version number
MYSQLND_MS_VERSION_ID, which is an integer
such as 10000. Developers can calculate the version number as
|Major*10000||1*10000 = 10000|
|Minor*100||0*100 = 0|
|Patch||0 = 0|