MySQL has a well-earned reputation for being easy-to-use and
delivering performance and scalability. Prior to MySQL 5.5,
MyISAM was the default storage engine.
In our experience, most users never changed the default settings. In
MySQL 5.5 and higher,
InnoDB is the
default storage engine. Again, we expect most users will not change
the default settings. But, because of
default settings deliver the benefits users expect from their RDBMS:
Integrity, and Crash
Recovery. Let's explore how using
tables improves your life as a MySQL user, DBA, or developer.
In the first years of MySQL growth, early web-based applications didn't push the limits of concurrency and availability. In recent years, hard drive and memory capacity and the performance/price ratio have all gone through the roof. Users pushing the performance boundaries of MySQL care a lot about reliability and crash recovery. MySQL databases are big, busy, robust, distributed, and important.
InnoDB addresses these top user priorities. The
trend of storage engine usage has shifted in favor of the more
InnoDB. Thus MySQL 5.5 was the logical
transition release to make
InnoDB the default
MySQL continues to work on addressing use cases that formerly
MyISAM tables. In MySQL 5.6 and higher:
InnoDBcan perform full-text search using the
FULLTEXTindex type. See Section 126.96.36.199, “InnoDB FULLTEXT Indexes” for details.
InnoDBnow performs better with read-only or read-mostly workloads. Automatic optimizations apply to
InnoDBqueries in autocommit mode, and you can explicitly mark transactions as read-only with the syntax
START TRANSACTION READ ONLY. See Section 8.5.3, “Optimizing InnoDB Read-Only Transactions” for details.
Applications distributed on read-only media can now use
InnoDBtables. See Section 14.3.2, “Configuring InnoDB for Read-Only Operation” for details.
Starting from MySQL 5.5.5, the default storage engine for new tables
InnoDB. This change applies to newly created
tables that don't specify a storage engine with a clause such as
ENGINE=MyISAM. Given this change of default
behavior, MySQL 5.5 might be a logical point to evaluate whether
your tables that do use
MyISAM could benefit from
information_schema databases, that implement some
of the MySQL internals, still use
particular, you cannot switch the grant tables to use
If you use
MyISAM tables but aren't tied to them
for technical reasons, you'll find many things more convenient when
If your server crashes because of a hardware or software issue, regardless of what was happening in the database at the time, you don't need to do anything special after restarting the database.
InnoDBcrash recovery automatically finalizes any changes that were committed before the time of the crash, and undoes any changes that were in process but not committed. Just restart and continue where you left off. This process is now much faster than in MySQL 5.1 and earlier.
InnoDBbuffer pool caches table and index data as the data is accessed. Frequently used data is processed directly from memory. This cache applies to so many types of information, and speeds up processing so much, that dedicated database servers assign up to 80% of their physical memory to the
If you split up related data into different tables, you can set up foreign keys that enforce referential integrity. Update or delete data, and the related data in other tables is updated or deleted automatically. Try to insert data into a secondary table without corresponding data in the primary table, and the bad data gets kicked out automatically.
If data becomes corrupted on disk or in memory, a checksum mechanism alerts you to the bogus data before you use it.
When you design your database with appropriate primary key columns for each table, operations involving those columns are automatically optimized. It is very fast to reference the primary key columns in
GROUP BYclauses, and join operations.
Inserts, updates, deletes are optimized by an automatic mechanism called change buffering.
InnoDBnot only allows concurrent read and write access to the same table, it caches changed data to streamline disk I/O.
Performance benefits are not limited to giant tables with long-running queries. When the same rows are accessed over and over from a table, a feature called the Adaptive Hash Index takes over to make these lookups even faster, as if they came out of a hash table.
If you have been using
InnoDB for a long time,
you already know about features like transactions and foreign keys.
If not, read about them throughout this chapter. To make a long
Embrace the idea of joins, where data is pulled from multiple tables based on identical ID values from those tables. For fast join performance, define foreign keys on the join columns, and declare those columns with the same data type in each table. The foreign keys also propagate deletes or updates to all affected tables, and prevent insertion of data in a child table if the corresponding IDs are not present in the parent table.
Turn off autocommit. Committing hundreds of times a second puts a cap on performance (limited by the write speed of your storage device).
Group sets of related DML operations into transactions, by bracketing them with
COMMITstatements. While you don't want to commit too often, you also don't want to issue huge batches of
DELETEstatements that run for hours without committing.
InnoDBcan handle multiple sessions all reading and writing to the same table at once, without sacrificing reliability or high performance. To get exclusive write access to a set of rows, use the
SELECT ... FOR UPDATEsyntax to lock just the rows you intend to update.
innodb_file_per_tableoption to put the data and indexes for individual tables into separate files, instead of in a single giant system tablespace.
CREATE TABLESPACEsyntax to create a shared general tablespace for table and index data. General tablespaces support multiple tables, all row formats, and can be created in a directory relative to or independent of the MySQL data directory. General tablespaces were introduced in MySQL 5.7.6.
Evaluate whether your data and access patterns benefit from the new
InnoDBtable compression feature (
ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED) on the
CREATE TABLEstatement. You can compress
InnoDBtables without sacrificing read/write capability.
Run your server with the option
--sql_mode=NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTIONto prevent tables being created with a different storage engine if there is an issue with the one specified in the
You can compress tables and associated indexes.
You can create and drop indexes with much less performance or availability impact than before.
Truncating a table is very fast, and can free up disk space for the operating system to reuse, rather than freeing up space within the system tablespace that only
The storage layout for table data is more efficient for BLOBs and long text fields, with the
You can monitor the internal workings of the storage engine by querying
You can monitor the performance details of the storage engine by querying
InnoDB-specific tuning techniques you can apply in your application code, see Section 8.5, “Optimizing for InnoDB Tables”.
Even before completing your upgrade from MySQL 5.1 or earlier to
MySQL 5.5 or higher, you can preview whether your database server or
application works correctly with
InnoDB as the
default storage engine. To set up
InnoDB as the
default storage engine with an earlier MySQL release, either specify
on the command line
--default-storage-engine=InnoDB, or add to your
default-storage-engine=innodb in the
[mysqld] section, then restart the server.
Since changing the default storage engine only affects new tables as
they are created, run all your application installation and setup
steps to confirm that everything installs properly. Then exercise
all the application features to make sure all the data loading,
editing, and querying features work. If a table relies on some
MyISAM-specific feature, you'll receive an error;
ENGINE=MyISAM clause to the
CREATE TABLE statement to avoid the error.
If you did not make a deliberate decision about the storage engine,
and you just want to preview how certain tables work when they're
InnoDB, issue the command
ALTER TABLE table_name ENGINE=InnoDB; for each
table. Or, to run test queries and other statements without
disturbing the original table, make a copy like so:
CREATE TABLE InnoDB_Table (...) ENGINE=InnoDB AS SELECT * FROM MyISAM_Table;
Since there are so many performance enhancements in
InnoDB in MySQL 5.5 and higher, to get a true
idea of the performance with a full application under a realistic
workload, install the latest MySQL server and run benchmarks.
Test the full application lifecycle, from installation, through heavy usage, and server restart. Kill the server process while the database is busy to simulate a power failure, and verify that the data is recovered successfully when you restart the server.
Test any replication configurations, especially if you use different MySQL versions and options on the master and the slaves.
To know what the status of
InnoDB is, whether
you're doing what-if testing with an older MySQL or comprehensive
testing with the latest MySQL:
Issue the command
SHOW ENGINES;to see all the different MySQL storage engines. Look for
InnoDBis not present at all, you have a
mysqldbinary that was compiled without
InnoDBsupport and you need to get a different one.
InnoDBis present but disabled, go back through your startup options and configuration file and get rid of any