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MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual  /  ...  /  Adding User Accounts

7.3.2 Adding User Accounts

You can create MySQL accounts two ways:

  • By using account-management statements intended for creating accounts and establishing their privileges, such as CREATE USER and GRANT. These statements cause the server to make appropriate modifications to the underlying grant tables.

  • By manipulating the MySQL grant tables directly with statements such as INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE.

The preferred method is to use account-management statements because they are more concise and less error-prone than manipulating the grant tables directly. All such statements are described in Section 14.7.1, “Account Management Statements”. Direct grant table manipulation is discouraged, and is not described here. The server is free to ignore rows that become malformed as a result of such modifications.

Another option for creating accounts is to use the GUI tool MySQL Workbench. Also, several third-party programs offer capabilities for MySQL account administration. phpMyAdmin is one such program.

The following examples show how to use the mysql client program to set up new accounts. These examples assume that privileges have been set up according to the defaults described in Section 2.10.4, “Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts”. This means that to make changes, you must connect to the MySQL server as the MySQL root user, which has the CREATE USER privilege.

First, use the mysql program to connect to the server as the MySQL root user:

shell> mysql --user=root mysql

If you have assigned a password to the root account, you must also supply a --password or -p option.

After connecting to the server as root, you can add new accounts. The following example uses CREATE USER and GRANT statements to set up four accounts:

mysql> CREATE USER 'finley'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'some_pass';
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'finley'@'localhost'
    ->     WITH GRANT OPTION;
mysql> CREATE USER 'finley'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY 'some_pass';
mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'finley'@'%'
    ->     WITH GRANT OPTION;
mysql> CREATE USER 'admin'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'admin_pass';
mysql> GRANT RELOAD,PROCESS ON *.* TO 'admin'@'localhost';
mysql> CREATE USER 'dummy'@'localhost';

The accounts created by those statements have the following properties:

  • Two accounts have a user name of finley and a password of some_pass. Both are superuser accounts with full privileges to do anything. The 'finley'@'localhost' account can be used only when connecting from the local host. The 'finley'@'%' account uses the '%' wildcard for the host part, so it can be used to connect from any host.

    The 'finley'@'localhost' account is necessary if there is an anonymous-user account for localhost. Without the 'finley'@'localhost' account, that anonymous-user account takes precedence when finley connects from the local host and finley is treated as an anonymous user. The reason for this is that the anonymous-user account has a more specific Host column value than the 'finley'@'%' account and thus comes earlier in the user table sort order. (user table sorting is discussed in Section 7.2.4, “Access Control, Stage 1: Connection Verification”.)

  • The 'admin'@'localhost' account has a password of admin_pass. This account can be used only by admin to connect from the local host. It is granted the RELOAD and PROCESS administrative privileges. These privileges enable the admin user to execute the mysqladmin reload, mysqladmin refresh, and mysqladmin flush-xxx commands, as well as mysqladmin processlist . No privileges are granted for accessing any databases. You could add such privileges using GRANT statements.

  • The 'dummy'@'localhost' account has no password (which is insecure and not recommended). This account can be used only to connect from the local host. No privileges are granted. It is assumed that you will grant specific privileges to the account using GRANT statements.

To see the privileges for an account, use SHOW GRANTS:

mysql> SHOW GRANTS FOR 'admin'@'localhost';
+-----------------------------------------------------+
| Grants for admin@localhost                          |
+-----------------------------------------------------+
| GRANT RELOAD, PROCESS ON *.* TO 'admin'@'localhost' |
+-----------------------------------------------------+

To see nonprivilege properties for an account, use SHOW CREATE USER:

mysql> SHOW CREATE USER 'admin'@'localhost'\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
CREATE USER for admin@localhost: CREATE USER 'admin'@'localhost'
IDENTIFIED WITH 'mysql_native_password'
AS '*67ACDEBDAB923990001F0FFB017EB8ED41861105'
REQUIRE NONE PASSWORD EXPIRE DEFAULT ACCOUNT UNLOCK

The next examples create three accounts and grant them access to specific databases. Each of them has a user name of custom and password of obscure:

mysql> CREATE USER 'custom'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'obscure';
mysql> GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE,DROP
    ->     ON bankaccount.*
    ->     TO 'custom'@'localhost';
mysql> CREATE USER 'custom'@'host47.example.com' IDENTIFIED BY 'obscure';
mysql> GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE,DROP
    ->     ON expenses.*
    ->     TO 'custom'@'host47.example.com';
mysql> CREATE USER 'custom'@'%.example.com' IDENTIFIED BY 'obscure';
mysql> GRANT SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,CREATE,DROP
    ->     ON customer.*
    ->     TO 'custom'@'%.example.com';

The three accounts can be used as follows:

  • The first account can access the bankaccount database, but only from the local host.

  • The second account can access the expenses database, but only from the host host47.example.com.

  • The third account can access the customer database, from any host in the example.com domain. This account has access from all machines in the domain due to use of the % wildcard character in the host part of the account name.


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