This section discusses optimizations that can be made for
WHERE clauses. The examples use
SELECT statements, but the same
optimizations apply for
WHERE clauses in
Work on the MySQL optimizer is ongoing, so this section is incomplete. MySQL performs a great many optimizations, not all of which are documented here.
Some of the optimizations performed by MySQL follow:
Removal of unnecessary parentheses:
((a AND b) AND c OR (((a AND b) AND (c AND d)))) -> (a AND b AND c) OR (a AND b AND c AND d)
(a<b AND b=c) AND a=5 -> b>5 AND b=c AND a=5
Constant condition removal (needed because of constant folding):
(B>=5 AND B=5) OR (B=6 AND 5=5) OR (B=7 AND 5=6) -> B=5 OR B=6
Constant expressions used by indexes are evaluated only once.
COUNT(*)on a single table without a
WHEREis retrieved directly from the table information for
MEMORYtables. This is also done for any
NOT NULLexpression when used with only one table.
Early detection of invalid constant expressions. MySQL quickly detects that some
SELECTstatements are impossible and returns no rows.
For each table in a join, a simpler
WHEREis constructed to get a fast
WHEREevaluation for the table and also to skip rows as soon as possible.
An empty table or a table with one row.
A table that is used with a
WHEREclause on a
PRIMARY KEYor a
UNIQUEindex, where all index parts are compared to constant expressions and are defined as
All of the following tables are used as constant tables:
SELECT * FROM t WHERE
primary_key=1; SELECT * FROM t1,t2 WHERE t1.
primary_key=1 AND t2.
The best join combination for joining the tables is found by trying all possibilities. If all columns in
GROUP BYclauses come from the same table, that table is preferred first when joining.
If there is an
ORDER BYclause and a different
GROUP BYclause, or if the
GROUP BYcontains columns from tables other than the first table in the join queue, a temporary table is created.
If you use the
SQL_SMALL_RESULToption, MySQL uses an in-memory temporary table.
Each table index is queried, and the best index is used unless the optimizer believes that it is more efficient to use a table scan. At one time, a scan was used based on whether the best index spanned more than 30% of the table, but a fixed percentage no longer determines the choice between using an index or a scan. The optimizer now is more complex and bases its estimate on additional factors such as table size, number of rows, and I/O block size.
MySQL can sometimes produce query results using data from the index, without consulting the table data. If all columns used from the index are numeric, only the index data is used to resolve the query.
Before each row is output, those that do not match the
HAVINGclause are skipped.
Some examples of queries that are very fast:
SELECT COUNT(*) FROM
tbl_name; SELECT MIN(
tbl_name; SELECT MAX(
constant; SELECT ... FROM
key_part2,... LIMIT 10; SELECT ... FROM
key_part2DESC, ... LIMIT 10;
MySQL resolves the following queries using only the index tree, assuming that the indexed columns are numeric:
val; SELECT COUNT(*) FROM
The following queries use indexing to retrieve the rows in sorted order without a separate sorting pass:
SELECT ... FROM
key_part2,... ; SELECT ... FROM
key_part2DESC, ... ;