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MySQL Utilities 1.5 Manual  /  Manual Pages  /  mysqldbcompare — Compare Two Databases and Identify Differences

5.3 mysqldbcompare — Compare Two Databases and Identify Differences

This utility compares the objects and data from two databases to find differences. It identifies objects having different definitions in the two databases and presents them in a diff-style format of choice. Differences in the data are shown using a similar diff-style format. Changed or missing rows are shown in a standard format of GRID, CSV, TAB, or VERTICAL.

Use the notation db1:db2 to name two databases to compare, or, alternatively just db1 to compare two databases with the same name. The latter case is a convenience notation for comparing same-named databases on different servers.

The comparison may be run against two databases of different names on a single server by specifying only the --server1 option. The user can also connect to another server by specifying the --server2 option. In this case, db1 is taken from server1 and db2 from server2.

All databases between two servers can also be compared using the --all option. In this case, only the databases in common (with the same name) between the servers are successively compared. Therefore, no databases need to be specified but the --server1 and --server2 options are required. Users can skip the comparison of some of the databases using the --exclude option.

Note

The data must not be changed during the comparison. Unexpected errors may occur if data is changed during the comparison.

The objects considered in the database include tables, views, triggers, procedures, functions, and events. A count for each object type can be shown with the -vv option.

The check is performed using a series of steps called tests. By default, the utility stops on the first failed test, but you can specify the --run-all-tests option to cause the utility to run all tests regardless of their end state.

Note

Using --run-all-tests may produce expected cascade failures. For example, if the row counts differ among two tables being compared, the data consistency will also fail.

The tests include the following:

  1. Check database definitions

    A database existence precondition check ensures that both databases exist. If they do not, no further processing is possible and the --run-all-tests option is ignored.

  2. Check existence of objects in both databases

    The test for objects in both databases identifies those objects missing from one or another database. The remaining tests apply only to those objects that appear in both databases. To skip this test, use the --skip-object-compare option. That can be useful when there are known missing objects among the databases.

  3. Compare object definitions

    The definitions (the CREATE statements) are compared and differences are presented. To skip this test, use the --skip-diff option. That can be useful when there are object name differences only that you want to ignore.

  4. Check table row counts

    This check ensures that both tables have the same number of rows. This does not ensure that the table data is consistent. It is merely a cursory check to indicate possible missing rows in one table or the other. The data consistency check identifies the missing rows. To skip this test, use the --skip-row-count option.

  5. Check table data consistency

    This check identifies both changed rows as well as missing rows from one or another of the tables in the databases. Changed rows are displayed as a diff-style report with the format chosen (GRID by default) and missing rows are also displayed using the format chosen. This check is divided in two steps: first the full table checksum is compared between the tables, then if this step fails (or is skipped) the algorithm to find rows differences is executed. To skip the preliminary checksum table step in this test, use the --skip-checksum-table option. To skip this full test, use the --skip-data-check option.

You may want to use the --skip-xxx options to run only one of the tests. This might be helpful when working to bring two databases into synchronization, to avoid running all of the tests repeatedly during the process.

Each test completes with one of the following states:

  • pass

    The test succeeded.

  • FAIL

    The test failed. Errors are displayed following the test state line.

  • SKIP

    The test was skipped due to a missing prerequisite or a skip option.

  • WARN

    The test encountered an unusual but not fatal error.

  • -

    The test is not applicable to this object.

To specify how to display diff-style output, use one of the following values with the --difftype option:

  • unified (default)

    Display unified format output.

  • context

    Display context format output.

  • differ

    Display differ-style format output.

  • sql

    Display SQL transformation statement output.

To specify how to display output for changed or missing rows, use one of the following values with the --format option:

  • grid (default)

    Display output in grid or table format like that of the mysql client command-line tool.

  • csv

    Display output in comma-separated values format.

  • tab

    Display output in tab-separated format.

  • vertical

    Display output in single-column format like that of the \G command for the mysql client command-line tool.

The --changes-for option controls the direction of the difference (by specifying the object to be transformed) in either the difference report (default) or the transformation report (designated with the --difftype=sql option). Consider the following command:

shell> mysqldbcompare --server1=root@host1 --server2=root@host2 --difftype=sql db1:dbx

The leftmost database (db1) exists on the server designated by the --server1 option (host1). The rightmost database (dbx) exists on the server designated by the --server2 option (host2).

  • --changes-for=server1: Produce output that shows how to make the definitions of objects on server1 like the definitions of the corresponding objects on server2.

  • --changes-for=server2: Produce output that shows how to make the definitions of objects on server2 like the definitions of the corresponding objects on server1.

The default direction is server1.

You must provide connection parameters (user, host, password, and so forth) for an account that has the appropriate privileges to access all objects in the operation.

If the utility is to be run on a server that has binary logging enabled, and you do not want the comparison steps logged, use the --disable-binary-logging option.

OPTIONS

mysqldbcompare accepts the following command-line options:

  • --all, -a

    Compare all database in common (with the same name) between two servers.

    The --all option ignores the following databases: INFORMATION_SCHEMA, PERFORMANCE_SCHEMA, mysql, and sys.

    Note

    The sys database is ignored as of Utilities 1.5.5.

  • --help

    Display a help message and exit.

  • --license

    Display license information and exit.

  • --changes-for=<direction>

    Specify the server to show transformations to match the other server. For example, to see the transformation for transforming object definitions on server1 to match the corresponding definitions on server2, use --changes-for=server1. Permitted values are server1 and server2. The default is server1.

  • --character-set=<charset>

    Sets the client character set. The default is retrieved from the server variable character_set_client.

  • --difftype=<difftype>, -d<difftype>

    Specify the difference display format. Permitted format values are unified, context, differ, and sql. The default is unified.

  • --disable-binary-logging

    If binary logging is enabled, disable it during the operation to prevent comparison operations from being written to the binary log. Note: Disabling binary logging requires the SUPER privilege.

  • --exclude=<exclude>, -x<exclude>

    Exclude one or more databases from the operation using either a specific name such as db1 or a search pattern. Use this option multiple times to specify multiple exclusions. By default, patterns use database patterns such as LIKE. With the --regexp option, patterns use regular expressions for matching names.

    Added in release-1.4.0.

  • --format=<format>, -f<format>

    Specify the display format for changed or missing rows. Permitted format values are grid, csv, tab, and vertical. The default is grid.

  • --compact

    Compacts the output by reducing the number of control lines that are displayed in the diff results. This option should be used together with one of the following difference types: unified or context. It is most effective when used with the unified difference type and the grid format.

  • --quiet, -q

    Do not print anything. Return only an exit code of success or failure.

  • --regexp, --basic-regexp, -G

    Perform pattern matches using the REGEXP operator. The default is to use LIKE for matching.

    Added in release-1.4.0.

  • --run-all-tests, -t

    Do not halt at the first difference found. Process all objects.

  • --server1=<source>

    Connection information for the first server.

    To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as --server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.

    • Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : <login-path>[:<port>][:<socket>]

    • Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example : <configuration-file-path>[:<section>]

    • Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : <user>[:<passwd>]@<host>[:<port>][:<socket>]

  • --server2=<source>

    Connection information for the second server.

    To connect to a server, it is necessary to specify connection parameters such as the user name, host name, password, and either a port or socket. MySQL Utilities provides a number of ways to supply this information. All of the methods require specifying your choice via a command-line option such as --server, --master, --slave, etc. The methods include the following in order of most secure to least secure.

    • Use login-paths from your .mylogin.cnf file (encrypted, not visible). Example : <login-path>[:<port>][:<socket>]

    • Use a configuration file (unencrypted, not visible) Note: available in release-1.5.0. Example : <configuration-file-path>[:<section>]

    • Specify the data on the command-line (unencrypted, visible). Example : <user>[:<passwd>]@<host>[:<port>][:<socket>]

  • --show-reverse

    Produce a transformation report containing the SQL statements to conform the object definitions specified in reverse. For example, if --changes-for is set to server1, also generate the transformation for server2. Note: The reverse changes are annotated and marked as comments.

  • --skip-checksum-table

    Skip the CHECKSUM TABLE step in the data consistency check. Added in release-1.4.3.

  • --skip-data-check

    Skip the data consistency check.

  • --skip-diff

    Skip the object definition difference check.

  • --skip-object-compare

    Skip the object comparison check.

  • --skip-row-count

    Skip the row count check.

  • --span-key-size=<number of bytes to use for key>

    Change the size of the key used for compare table contents. A higher value can help to get more accurate results comparing large databases, but may slow the algorithm.

    Default value is 8.

  • --ssl-ca

    The path to a file that contains a list of trusted SSL CAs.

  • --ssl-cert

    The name of the SSL certificate file to use for establishing a secure connection.

  • --ssl-key

    The name of the SSL key file to use for establishing a secure connection.

  • --ssl

    Specifies if the server connection requires use of SSL. If an encrypted connection cannot be established, the connection attempt fails. Default setting is 0 (SSL not required).

  • --verbose, -v

    Specify how much information to display. Use this option multiple times to increase the amount of information. For example, -v = verbose, -vv = more verbose, -vvv = debug.

  • --version

    Display version information and exit.

  • --use-indexes

    List the index to use. Use this option to select the index to use if the table has no primary key or it has more than one unique index without null columns. Use this option in the format: --use-indexes="<table1>.<indexA>[;<table2>.<indexB>;]"

  • --width=<number>

    Change the display width of the test report. The default is 75 characters.

NOTES

The login user must have the appropriate permissions to read all databases and tables listed.

For the --difftype option, the permitted values are not case sensitive. In addition, values may be specified as any unambiguous prefix of a valid value. For example, --difftype=d specifies the differ type. An error occurs if a prefix matches more than one valid value.

The path to the MySQL client tools should be included in the PATH environment variable in order to use the authentication mechanism with login-paths. This will allow the utility to use the my_print_defaults tools which is required to read the login-path values from the login configuration file (.mylogin.cnf).

If any database identifier specified as an argument contains special characters or is a reserved word, then it must be appropriately quoted with backticks (`). In turn, names quoted with backticks must also be quoted with single or double quotes depending on the operating system, i.e. (") in Windows or (') in non-Windows systems, in order for the utilities to read backtick quoted identifiers as a single argument. For example, to compare a database with the name weird`db.name with other:weird`db.name, the database pair must be specified using the following syntax (in non-Windows): '`weird``db.name`:`other:weird``db.name`'.

EXAMPLES

Use the following command to compare the emp1 and emp2 databases on the local server, and run all tests even if earlier tests fail:

shell> mysqldbcompare --server1=root@localhost emp1:emp2 --run-all-tests
# server1 on localhost: ... connected.
# Checking databases emp1 on server1 and emp2 on server2
#
# WARNING: Objects in server2:emp2 but not in server1:emp1:
#   TRIGGER: trg
# PROCEDURE: p1
#     TABLE: t1
#      VIEW: v1
#
#                                                   Defn    Row     Data
# Type      Object Name                             Diff    Count   Check
# ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
# FUNCTION  f1                                      pass    -       -
# TABLE     departments                             pass    pass    -
#           - Compare table checksum                                FAIL
#           - Find row differences                                  FAIL
#
# Data differences found among rows:
--- emp1.departments
+++ emp2.departments
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
 *************************       1. row *************************
    dept_no: d002
- dept_name: dunno
+ dept_name: Finance
 1 rows.

# Rows in emp1.departments not in emp2.departments
*************************       1. row *************************
   dept_no: d008
 dept_name: Research
1 rows.

# Rows in emp2.departments not in emp1.departments
*************************       1. row *************************
   dept_no: d100
 dept_name: stupid
1 rows.

# TABLE     dept_manager                            pass    pass    -
#           - Compare table checksum                                pass

# Database consistency check failed.
#
# ...done

Given: two databases with the same table layout. Data for each table contains:

mysql> select * from db1.t1;
+---+---------------+
| a | b             |
+---+---------------+
| 1 | Test 789      |
| 2 | Test 456      |
| 3 | Test 123      |
| 4 | New row - db1 |
+---+---------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> select * from db2.t1;
+---+---------------+
| a | b             |
+---+---------------+
| 1 | Test 123      |
| 2 | Test 456      |
| 3 | Test 789      |
| 5 | New row - db2 |
+---+---------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

To generate the SQL statements for data transformations to make db1.t1 the same as db2.t1, use the --changes-for=server1 option. We must also include the -a option to ensure that the data consistency test is run. The following command illustrates the options used and an excerpt from the results generated:

shell> mysqldbcompare --server1=root:root@localhost \
    --server2=root:root@localhost db1:db2 --changes-for=server1 -a \/
    --difftype=sql

[...]

#                                                   Defn    Row     Data
# Type      Object Name                             Diff    Count   Check
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
# TABLE     t1                                      pass    pass    -
#           - Compare table checksum                                FAIL
#           - Find row differences                                  FAIL
#
# Transformation for --changes-for=server1:
#

# Data differences found among rows:
UPDATE db1.t1 SET b = 'Test 123' WHERE a = '1';
UPDATE db1.t1 SET b = 'Test 789' WHERE a = '3';
DELETE FROM db1.t1 WHERE a = '4';
INSERT INTO db1.t1 (a, b) VALUES('5', 'New row - db2');


# Database consistency check failed.
#
# ...done

Similarly, when the same command is run with --changes-for=server2 and --difftype=sql, the following report is generated:

shell> mysqldbcompare --server1=root:root@localhost \
    --server2=root:root@localhost db1:db2 --changes-for=server2 -a \
    --difftype=sql

[...]

#                                                   Defn    Row     Data
# Type      Object Name                             Diff    Count   Check
#-------------------------------------------------------------------------
# TABLE     t1                                      pass    pass    -
#           - Compare table checksum                                FAIL
#           - Find row differences                                  FAIL
#
# Transformation for --changes-for=server2:
#

# Data differences found among rows:
UPDATE db2.t1 SET b = 'Test 789' WHERE a = '1';
UPDATE db2.t1 SET b = 'Test 123' WHERE a = '3';
DELETE FROM db2.t1 WHERE a = '5';
INSERT INTO db2.t1 (a, b) VALUES('4', 'New row - db1');


# Database consistency check failed.
#
# ...done

With the --difftype=sql SQL generation option set, --show-reverse shows the object transformations in both directions. Here is an excerpt of the results:

shell> mysqldbcompare --server1=root:root@localhost \
          --server2=root:root@localhost db1:db2 --changes-for=server1 \
          --show-reverse -a --difftype=sql

[...]

#                                                   Defn    Row     Data
# Type      Object Name                             Diff    Count   Check
# -------------------------------------------------------------------------
# TABLE     t1                                      pass    pass    -
#           - Compare table checksum                                FAIL
#           - Find row differences                                  FAIL
#
# Transformation for --changes-for=server1:
#

# Data differences found among rows:
UPDATE db1.t1 SET b = 'Test 123' WHERE a = '1';
UPDATE db1.t1 SET b = 'Test 789' WHERE a = '3';
DELETE FROM db1.t1 WHERE a = '4';
INSERT INTO db1.t1 (a, b) VALUES('5', 'New row - db2');

#
# Transformation for reverse changes (--changes-for=server2):
#
# # Data differences found among rows:
# UPDATE db2.t1 SET b = 'Test 789' WHERE a = '1';
# UPDATE db2.t1 SET b = 'Test 123' WHERE a = '3';
# DELETE FROM db2.t1 WHERE a = '5';
# INSERT INTO db2.t1 (a, b) VALUES('4', 'New row - db1');


# Database consistency check failed.
#
# ...done

LIMITATIONS

The utility reads the primary key of each row into a data structure, which is then used to generate checksums for each row. The primary key and checksum are then sorted and compared to detect which rows differ. Due to this design, the utility may exhibit slower performance for very large tables (many rows) especially for tables with wide primary keys. Use of this utility with tables that have blob fields as part of the primary key is not recommended.

PERMISSIONS REQUIRED

The user must have the SELECT, CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES and INSERT privileges for the databases being compared on both connections. The user must also have SELECT privilege on the mysql database. If the binary log is enabled and the --disable-binary-logging option is used, the user must also have the SUPER privilege.


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