Generally, you start the mysqld server in one of these ways:
Invoke mysqld directly. This works on any platform.
Invoke mysqld_safe, which tries to determine the proper options for mysqld and then runs it with those options. This script is used on Unix and Unix-like systems. See mysqld_safe — MySQL Server Startup Script.
Invoke mysql.server. This script is used
primarily at system startup and shutdown on systems that use
System V-style run directories (that is,
/etc/init.d and run-level specific
directories), where it usually is installed under the name
mysql.server script starts the server by
invoking mysqld_safe. See
mysql.server — MySQL Server Startup Script.
On Mac OS X, install a separate MySQL Startup Item package to enable the automatic startup of MySQL on system startup. The Startup Item starts the server by invoking mysql.server. See Installing the MySQL Startup Item, for details. A MySQL Preference Pane also provides control for starting and stopping MySQL through the System Preferences, see Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane.
Use the Solaris/OpenSolaris service management framework (SMF) system to initiate and control MySQL startup. For more information, see Installing MySQL on OpenSolaris Using IPS.
The mysqld_safe and mysql.server scripts, Solaris/OpenSolaris SMF, and the Mac OS X Startup Item (or MySQL Preference Pane) can be used to start the server manually, or automatically at system startup time. mysql.server and the Startup Item also can be used to stop the server.
To start or stop the server manually using the
mysql.server script, invoke it with
Before mysql.server starts the server, it
changes location to the MySQL installation directory, and then
invokes mysqld_safe. If you want the server
to run as some specific user, add an appropriate
user option to the
[mysqld] group of the
/etc/my.cnf option file, as shown later in
this section. (It is possible that you will need to edit
mysql.server if you've installed a binary
distribution of MySQL in a nonstandard location. Modify it to
change location into the proper directory before it runs
mysqld_safe. If you do this, your modified
version of mysql.server may be overwritten if
you upgrade MySQL in the future, so you should make a copy of
your edited version that you can reinstall.)
mysql.server stop stops the server by sending a signal to it. You can also stop the server manually by executing mysqladmin shutdown.
To start and stop MySQL automatically on your server, you need
to add start and stop commands to the appropriate places in your
If you use the Linux server RPM package
or a native Linux package installation, the
mysql.server script may be installed in the
/etc/init.d directory with the name
Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages, for more information
on the Linux RPM packages.
Some vendors provide RPM packages that install a startup script under a different name such as mysqld.
If you install MySQL from a source distribution or using a
binary distribution format that does not install
mysql.server automatically, you can install
it manually. The script can be found in the
support-files directory under the MySQL
installation directory or in a MySQL source tree.
To install mysql.server manually, copy it to
/etc/init.d directory with the name
mysql, and then make it executable. Do this
by changing location into the appropriate directory where
mysql.server is located and executing these
cp mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysqlshell>
chmod +x /etc/init.d/mysql
Older Red Hat systems use the
/etc/rc.d/init.d directory rather than
/etc/init.d. Adjust the preceding
commands accordingly. Alternatively, first create
/etc/init.d as a symbolic link that
ln -s rc.d/init.d .
After installing the script, the commands needed to activate it to run at system startup depend on your operating system. On Linux, you can use chkconfig:
chkconfig --add mysql
On some Linux systems, the following command also seems to be necessary to fully enable the mysql script:
chkconfig --level 345 mysql on
On FreeBSD, startup scripts generally should go in
rc(8) manual page states that scripts in this
directory are executed only if their basename matches the
*.sh shell file name pattern. Any other files
or directories present within the directory are silently
ignored. In other words, on FreeBSD, you should install the
mysql.server script as
enable automatic startup.
As an alternative to the preceding setup, some operating systems
/etc/init.d/boot.local to start additional
services on startup. To start up MySQL using this method, you
could append a command like the one following to the appropriate
/bin/sh -c 'cd /usr/local/mysql; ./bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &'
For other systems, consult your operating system documentation to see how to install startup scripts.
You can add options for mysql.server in a
/etc/my.cnf file. A typical
/etc/my.cnf file might look like this:
[mysqld] datadir=/usr/local/mysql/var socket=/var/tmp/mysql.sock port=3306 user=mysql [mysql.server] basedir=/usr/local/mysql
The mysql.server script supports the
specified, they must be placed in an option
file, not on the command line. mysql.server
stop as command-line arguments.
The following table shows which option groups the server and each startup script read from option files.
Table 3.1 MySQL Startup scripts and supported server option groups
means that groups with names like
[mysqld-5.7] are read by servers
having versions 5.6.x, 5.7.x, and so
forth. This feature can be used to specify options that can be
read only by servers within a given release series.
For backward compatibility, mysql.server also
[mysql_server] group and
mysqld_safe also reads the
[safe_mysqld] group. However, you should
update your option files to use the
[mysqld_safe] groups instead when using MySQL
For more information on MySQL configuration files and their structure and contents, see Using Option Files.