Security in MySQL  /  The MySQL Access Privilege System  /  Privilege System Grant Tables

4.2 Privilege System Grant Tables

The mysql system database includes several grant tables that contain information about user accounts and the privileges held by them.

Normally, to manipulate the contents of grant tables, you modify them indirectly by using account-management statements such as CREATE USER, GRANT, and REVOKE to set up accounts and control the privileges available to each one. See Account Management Statements. The discussion here describes the underlying structure of the grant tables and how the server uses their contents when interacting with clients.


Direct modification of grant tables using statements such as INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE is discouraged. The server is free to ignore rows that become malformed as a result of such modifications.

These mysql database tables contain grant information:

  • user: User accounts, global privileges, and other non-privilege columns.

  • db: Database-level privileges.

  • host: Obsolete. MySQL install operations do not create this table as of MySQL 5.6.7.

  • tables_priv: Table-level privileges.

  • columns_priv: Column-level privileges.

  • procs_priv: Stored procedure and function privileges.

  • proxies_priv: Proxy-user privileges.

Other tables in the mysql database do not hold grant information and are discussed elsewhere:

Each grant table contains scope columns and privilege columns:

  • Scope columns determine the scope of each row in the tables; that is, the context in which the row applies. For example, a user table row with Host and User values of '' and 'bob' applies to authenticating connections made to the server from the host by a client that specifies a user name of bob. Similarly, a db table row with Host, User, and Db column values of '', 'bob' and 'reports' applies when bob connects from the host to access the reports database. The tables_priv and columns_priv tables contain scope columns indicating tables or table/column combinations to which each row applies. The procs_priv scope columns indicate the stored routine to which each row applies.

  • Privilege columns indicate which privileges a table row grants; that is, which operations it permits to be performed. The server combines the information in the various grant tables to form a complete description of a user's privileges. Section 4.5, “Access Control, Stage 2: Request Verification”, describes the rules for this.

The server uses the grant tables in the following manner:

  • The user table scope columns determine whether to reject or permit incoming connections. For permitted connections, any privileges granted in the user table indicate the user's global privileges. Any privileges granted in this table apply to all databases on the server.


    Because any global privilege is considered a privilege for all databases, any global privilege enables a user to see all database names with SHOW DATABASES or by examining the SCHEMATA table of INFORMATION_SCHEMA.

  • The db table scope columns determine which users can access which databases from which hosts. The privilege columns determine the permitted operations. A privilege granted at the database level applies to the database and to all objects in the database, such as tables and stored programs.

  • The tables_priv and columns_priv tables are similar to the db table, but are more fine-grained: They apply at the table and column levels rather than at the database level. A privilege granted at the table level applies to the table and to all its columns. A privilege granted at the column level applies only to a specific column.

  • The procs_priv table applies to stored routines (procedures and functions). A privilege granted at the routine level applies only to a single procedure or function.

  • The proxies_priv table indicates which users can act as proxies for other users and whether a user can grant the PROXY privilege to other users.

The server uses the user and db tables in the mysql database at both the first and second stages of access control (see Chapter 4, The MySQL Access Privilege System). The columns in the user and db tables are shown here.

Table 4.2 user and db Table Columns

Table Nameuserdb
Scope columnsHostHost
Privilege columnsSelect_privSelect_priv
Security columnsssl_type
Resource control columnsmax_questions

The user table plugin, Password, and authentication_string columns store authentication plugin and credential information.

If an account row names a plugin in the plugin column, the server uses it to authenticate connection attempts for the account. It is up to the plugin whether it uses the Password and authentication_string column values.

If the plugin column for an account row is empty, the server authenticates the account using the mysql_native_password or mysql_old_password plugin implicitly, depending on the format of the password hash in the Password column. If the Password value is empty or a 4.1 password hash (41 characters), the server uses mysql_native_password. If the password value is a pre-4.1 password hash (16 characters), the server uses mysql_old_password. (For additional information about these hash formats, see Section 2.2.4, “Password Hashing in MySQL”.) Clients must match the password in the Password column of the account row.

The password_expired column was added in MySQL 5.6.6 to permit DBAs to expire account passwords and require users to reset their password. The default password_expired value is 'N', but can be set to 'Y' with the ALTER USER statement. After an account's password has been expired, all operations performed by the account in subsequent connections to the server result in an error until the user issues a SET PASSWORD statement to establish a new account password.

It is possible after password expiration to reset a password by setting it to its current value. As a matter of good policy, it is preferable to choose a different password.


In MySQL 5.6.6, ALTER USER also sets the Password column to the empty string, so do not use this statement until 5.6.7.

During the second stage of access control, the server performs request verification to ensure that each client has sufficient privileges for each request that it issues. In addition to the user and db grant tables, the server may also consult the tables_priv and columns_priv tables for requests that involve tables. The latter tables provide finer privilege control at the table and column levels. They have the columns shown in the following table.

Table 4.3 tables_priv and columns_priv Table Columns

Table Nametables_privcolumns_priv
Scope columnsHostHost
Privilege columnsTable_privColumn_priv
Other columnsTimestampTimestamp

The Timestamp and Grantor columns are set to the current timestamp and the CURRENT_USER value, respectively, but are otherwise unused.

For verification of requests that involve stored routines, the server may consult the procs_priv table, which has the columns shown in the following table.

Table 4.4 procs_priv Table Columns

Table Nameprocs_priv
Scope columnsHost
Privilege columnsProc_priv
Other columnsTimestamp

The Routine_type column is an ENUM column with values of 'FUNCTION' or 'PROCEDURE' to indicate the type of routine the row refers to. This column enables privileges to be granted separately for a function and a procedure with the same name.

The Timestamp and Grantor columns are unused.

The proxies_priv table records information about proxy accounts. It has these columns:

  • Host, User: The proxy account; that is, the account that has the PROXY privilege for the proxied account.

  • Proxied_host, Proxied_user: The proxied account.

  • Grantor, Timestamp: Unused.

  • With_grant: Whether the proxy account can grant the PROXY privilege to other accounts.

For an account to be able to grant the PROXY privilege to other accounts, it must have a row in the proxies_priv table with With_grant set to 1 and Proxied_host and Proxied_user set to indicate the account or accounts for which the privilege can be granted. For example, the 'root'@'localhost' account created during MySQL installation has a row in the proxies_priv table that enables granting the PROXY privilege for ''@'', that is, for all users and all hosts. This enables root to set up proxy users, as well as to delegate to other accounts the authority to set up proxy users. See Section 5.9, “Proxy Users”.

Scope columns in the grant tables contain strings. The default value for each is the empty string. The following table shows the number of characters permitted in each column.

Table 4.5 Grant Table Scope Column Lengths

Column NameMaximum Permitted Characters
Host, Proxied_host60
User, Proxied_user16

For access-checking purposes, comparisons of User, Proxied_user, Password, Db, and Table_name values are case sensitive. Comparisons of Host, Proxied_host, Column_name, and Routine_name values are not case sensitive.

The user and db tables list each privilege in a separate column that is declared as ENUM('N','Y') DEFAULT 'N'. In other words, each privilege can be disabled or enabled, with the default being disabled.

The tables_priv, columns_priv, and procs_priv tables declare the privilege columns as SET columns. Values in these columns can contain any combination of the privileges controlled by the table. Only those privileges listed in the column value are enabled.

Table 4.6 Set-Type Privilege Column Values

Table NameColumn NamePossible Set Elements
tables_privTable_priv'Select', 'Insert', 'Update', 'Delete', 'Create', 'Drop', 'Grant', 'References', 'Index', 'Alter', 'Create View', 'Show view', 'Trigger'
tables_privColumn_priv'Select', 'Insert', 'Update', 'References'
columns_privColumn_priv'Select', 'Insert', 'Update', 'References'
procs_privProc_priv'Execute', 'Alter Routine', 'Grant'

Only the user table specifies administrative privileges, such as RELOAD and SHUTDOWN. Administrative operations are operations on the server itself and are not database-specific, so there is no reason to list these privileges in the other grant tables. Consequently, the server need consult only the user table to determine whether a user can perform an administrative operation.

The FILE privilege also is specified only in the user table. It is not an administrative privilege as such, but a user's ability to read or write files on the server host is independent of the database being accessed.

The server reads the contents of the grant tables into memory when it starts. You can tell it to reload the tables by issuing a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement or executing a mysqladmin flush-privileges or mysqladmin reload command. Changes to the grant tables take effect as indicated in Section 4.6, “When Privilege Changes Take Effect”.

When you modify an account, it is a good idea to verify that your changes have the intended effect. To check the privileges for a given account, use the SHOW GRANTS statement. For example, to determine the privileges that are granted to an account with user name and host name values of bob and, use this statement:


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