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InnoDB 1.1 for MySQL 5.5 User's Guide
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3.2. Enabling Compression for a Table

The default uncompressed size of InnoDB data pages is 16KB. You can use the attributes ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED, KEY_BLOCK_SIZE, or both in the CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE statements to enable table compression. Depending on the combination of option values, InnoDB uses a page size of 1KB, 2KB, 4KB, 8KB, or 16KB for the .ibd file of the table. (The actual compression algorithm is not affected by the KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value.)

Note

Compression is applicable to tables, not to individual rows, despite the option name ROW_FORMAT.

To create a compressed table, you might use a statement like this:

CREATE TABLE name
 (column1 INT PRIMARY KEY) 
 ENGINE=InnoDB
 ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED 
 KEY_BLOCK_SIZE=4;

If you specify ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED but not KEY_BLOCK_SIZE, the default compressed page size of 8KB is used. If KEY_BLOCK_SIZE is specified, you can omit the attribute ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED.

Setting KEY_BLOCK_SIZE=16 typically does not result in much compression, since the normal InnoDB page size is 16KB. This setting may still be useful for tables with many long BLOB, VARCHAR or TEXT columns, because such values often do compress well, and might therefore require fewer overflow pages as described in Section 3.4, “How Compression Works for InnoDB Tables”.

All indexes of a table (including the clustered index) are compressed using the same page size, as specified in the CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement. Table attributes such as ROW_FORMAT and KEY_BLOCK_SIZE are not part of the CREATE INDEX syntax, and are ignored if they are specified (although you see them in the output of the SHOW CREATE TABLE statement).


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