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7.6.4.1 Introduction

Copyright 1997-2014 the PHP Documentation Group.

Changelog: Feature was added in PECL/mysqlnd_ms 1.1.0-beta

The below description applies to PECL/mysqlnd_ms >= 1.1.0-beta. It is not valid for prior versions.

The plugin uses its own configuration file. The configuration file holds information about the MySQL replication master server, the MySQL replication slave servers, the server pick (load balancing) policy, the failover strategy, and the use of lazy connections.

The plugin loads its configuration file at the beginning of a web request. It is then cached in memory and used for the duration of the web request. This way, there is no need to restart PHP after deploying the configuration file. Configuration file changes will become active almost instantly.

The PHP configuration directive mysqlnd_ms.config_file is used to set the plugins configuration file. Please note, that the PHP configuration directive may not be evaluated for every web request. Therefore, changing the plugins configuration file name or location may require a PHP restart. However, no restart is required to read changes if an already existing plugin configuration file is updated.

Using and parsing JSON is efficient, and using JSON makes it easier to express hierarchical data structures than the standard php.ini format.

Example 7.58 Converting a PHP array (hash) into JSON format

Or alternatively, a developer may be more familiar with the PHP array syntax, and prefer it. This example demonstrates how a developer might convert a PHP array to JSON.


<?php
$config = array(
  "myapp" => array(
    "master" => array(
      "master_0" => array(
        "host"   => "localhost",
        "socket" => "/tmp/mysql.sock",
      ),
    ),
    "slave" => array(),
  ),
);

file_put_contents("mysqlnd_ms.ini", json_encode($config, JSON_PRETTY_PRINT));
printf("mysqlnd_ms.ini file created...\n");
printf("Dumping file contents...\n");
printf("%s\n", str_repeat("-", 80));
echo file_get_contents("mysqlnd_ms.ini");
printf("\n%s\n", str_repeat("-", 80));
?>

    

The above example will output:


mysqlnd_ms.ini file created...
Dumping file contents...
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
{
    "myapp": {
        "master": {
            "master_0": {
                "host": "localhost",
                "socket": "\/tmp\/mysql.sock"
            }
        },
        "slave": [

        ]
    }
}
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


A plugin configuration file consists of one or more sections. Sections are represented by the top-level object properties of the object encoded in the JSON file. Sections could also be called configuration names.

Applications reference sections by their name. Applications use section names as the host (server) parameter to the various connect methods of the mysqli, mysql and PDO_MYSQL extensions. Upon connect, the mysqlnd plugin compares the hostname with all of the section names from the plugin configuration file. If the hostname and section name match, then the plugin will load the settings for that section.

Example 7.59 Using section names example


{
    "myapp": {
        "master": {
            "master_0": {
                "host": "localhost"
            }
        },
        "slave": {
            "slave_0": {
                "host": "192.168.2.27"
            },
            "slave_1": {
                "host": "192.168.2.27",
                "port": 3306
            }
        }
    },
    "localhost": {
        "master": [
            {
                "host": "localhost",
                "socket": "\/path\/to\/mysql.sock"
            }
        ],
        "slave": [
            {
                "host": "192.168.3.24",
                "port": "3305"
            },
            {
                "host": "192.168.3.65",
                "port": "3309"
            }
        ]
    }
}

    

<?php
/* All of the following connections will be load balanced */
$mysqli = new mysqli("myapp", "username", "password", "database");
$pdo = new PDO('mysql:host=myapp;dbname=database', 'username', 'password');
$mysql = mysql_connect("myapp", "username", "password");

$mysqli = new mysqli("localhost", "username", "password", "database");
?>


Section names are strings. It is valid to use a section name such as 192.168.2.1, 127.0.0.1 or localhost. If, for example, an application connects to localhost and a plugin configuration section localhost exists, the semantics of the connect operation are changed. The application will no longer only use the MySQL server running on the host localhost, but the plugin will start to load balance MySQL queries following the rules from the localhost configuration section. This way you can load balance queries from an application without changing the applications source code. Please keep in mind, that such a configuration may not contribute to overall readability of your applications source code. Using section names that can be mixed up with host names should be seen as a last resort.

Each configuration section contains, at a minimum, a list of master servers and a list of slave servers. The master list is configured with the keyword master, while the slave list is configured with the slave keyword. Failing to provide a slave list will result in a fatal E_ERROR level error, although a slave list may be empty. It is possible to allow no slaves. However, this is only recommended with synchronous clusters, please see also supported clusters. The main part of the documentation focusses on the use of asynchronous MySQL replication clusters.

The master and slave server lists can be optionally indexed by symbolic names for the servers they describe. Alternatively, an array of descriptions for slave and master servers may be used.

Example 7.60 List of anonymous slaves


"slave": [
    {
        "host": "192.168.3.24",
        "port": "3305"
    },
    {
        "host": "192.168.3.65",
        "port": "3309"
    }
]


An anonymous server list is encoded by the JSON array type. Optionally, symbolic names may be used for indexing the slave or master servers of a server list, and done so using the JSON object type.

Example 7.61 Master list using symbolic names


"master": {
    "master_0": {
        "host": "localhost"
    }
}


It is recommended to index the server lists with symbolic server names. The alias names will be shown in error messages.

The order of servers is preserved and taken into account by mysqlnd_ms. If, for example, you configure round robin load balancing strategy, the first SELECT statement will be executed on the slave that appears first in the slave server list.

A configured server can be described with the host, port, socket, db, user, password and connect_flags. It is mandatory to set the database server host using the host keyword. All other settings are optional.

Example 7.62 Keywords to configure a server


{
    "myapp": {
        "master": {
            "master_0": {
                "host": "db_server_host",
                "port": "db_server_port",
                "socket": "db_server_socket",
                "db": "database_resp_schema",
                "user": "user",
                "password": "password",
                "connect_flags": 0
            }
        },
        "slave": {
            "slave_0": {
                "host": "db_server_host",
                "port": "db_server_port",
                "socket": "db_server_socket"
            }
        }
    }
}


If a setting is omitted, the plugin will use the value provided by the user API call used to open a connection. Please, see the using section names example above.

The configuration file format has been changed in version 1.1.0-beta to allow for chained filters. Filters are responsible for filtering the configured list of servers to identify a server for execution of a given statement. Filters are configured with the filter keyword. Filters are executed by mysqlnd_ms in the order of their appearance. Defining filters is optional. A configuration section in the plugins configuration file does not need to have a filters entry.

Filters replace the pick[] setting from prior versions. The new random and roundrobin provide the same functionality.

Example 7.63 New roundrobin filter, old functionality


   {
    "myapp": {
        "master": {
            "master_0": {
                "host": "localhost"
            }
        },
        "slave": {
            "slave_0": {
                "host": "192.168.78.136",
                "port": "3306"
            },
            "slave_1": {
                "host": "192.168.78.137",
                "port": "3306"
            }
        },
        "filters": {
            "roundrobin": [

            ]
        }
    }
}


The function mysqlnd_ms_set_user_pick_server has been removed. Setting a callback is now done with the user filter. Some filters accept parameters. The user filter requires and accepts a mandatory callback parameter to set the callback previously set through the function mysqlnd_ms_set_user_pick_server.

Example 7.64 The user filter replaces mysqlnd_ms_set_user_pick_server


"filters": {
    "user": {
        "callback": "pick_server"
    }
}


The validity of the configuration file is checked both when reading the configuration file and later when establishing a connection. The configuration file is read during PHP request startup. At this early stage a PHP extension may not display error messages properly. In the worst case, no error is shown and a connection attempt fails without an adequate error message. This problem has been cured in version 1.5.0.

Example 7.65 Common error message in case of configuration file issues (upto version 1.5.0)


<?php
$mysqli = new mysqli("myapp", "username", "password", "database");
?>

    

The above example will output:


Warning: mysqli::mysqli(): (mysqlnd_ms) (mysqlnd_ms) Failed to parse config file [s1.json]. Please, verify the JSON in Command line code

Warning: mysqli::mysqli(): (HY000/2002): php_network_getaddresses: getaddrinfo failed: Name or service not known in Command line code on line 1

Warning: mysqli::query(): Couldn't fetch mysqli in Command line code on line 1

Fatal error: Call to a member function fetch_assoc() on a non-object in Command line code on line 1


Since version 1.5.0 startup errors are additionally buffered and emitted when a connection attempt is made. Use the configuration directive mysqlnd_ms.force_config_usage to set the error type used to display buffered errors. By default an error of type E_WARNING will be emitted.

Example 7.66 Improved configuration file validation since 1.5.0


<?php
$mysqli = new mysqli("myapp", "username", "password", "database");
?>

    

The above example will output:


Warning: mysqli::mysqli(): (mysqlnd_ms) (mysqlnd_ms) Failed to parse config file [s1.json]. Please, verify the JSON in Command line code on line 1


It can be useful to set mysqlnd_ms.force_config_usage = 1 when debugging potential configuration file errors. This will not only turn the type of buffered startup errors into E_RECOVERABLE_ERROR but also help detecting misspelled section names.

Example 7.67 Possibly more precise error due to mysqlnd_ms.force_config_usage=1


mysqlnd_ms.force_config_usage=1

    

<?php
$mysqli = new mysqli("invalid_section", "username", "password", "database");
?>

    

The above example will output:


Warning: mysqli::mysqli(): (mysqlnd_ms) Exclusive usage of configuration enforced but did not find the correct INI file section (invalid_section) in Command line code on line 1 line 1



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